Saturday, December 28, 2019

Roles of the Synagogue Essay - 1349 Words

Roles of the Synagogue The synagogue is a place for the Jewish people to worship God, or more particularly, where Jewish people can hear the Torah being read and pray to God. As well as functioning as a House of Prayer, or Beit ha Tefilah, the synagogue is also known as House of Assembly, Beit ha Knesset and House of Study, Beit ha Midrash. On three things the world stands, says the Mishnah, On the study of the Torah, on worship and on deeds of kindness. This quote reflects the functions of the synagogue distinctly. The study of the Torah is the reason the name House of Study is given to the synagogue. The Torah is guidance to how Jews live; it is the fundamental basis of†¦show more content†¦These activities help young Jews meet each other at an early age. Many activities organised are religious as well as social, such as Childrens services, Sunday morning Minyanaires, Bar Mitzvahs, Cheder and Childrens parties. These activities teach the younger generation about Judaism as well as emphasising the importance of socialising with others. There are also groups for women in the Northwood Orthodox Synagogue such as The Ladies Guild, which is a social group that organises outings and holds many responsibilities within the synagogue. In the Northwood and Pinner Liberal Synagogue, there are many social events organised. The cultural activities include photography and embroidery. There are also sporting events organised as well as bereavement visitors, to help those in need of a sympathetic ear. There are not many social activities organised to teach Judaism, like the Orthodox synagogue, but many activities are organised to bring the community together. Being part of the Jewish community in a synagogue and taking part in the events organised reinforces a Jews sense of identity. The synagogue is also known as House of Study. Beit ha Midrash. In Judaism it is very important to learn about faith. This is also so that the religion can continue. Studying the Torah is a mitzvah. InShow MoreRelatedThe Ancient Synagogue : The First Thousand Years957 Words   |  4 Pagesstable sanctuary for prayer, community activities, and intellectual stimulation. This sanctuary is often named the Synagogue but takes on many other names such as the shul and the temple. Through the Synagogue the Jewish people have been able to continue to develop their culture, community affairs, and provide a safe intellectual home for all friends and followers of Judaism. Synagogues became predominant after the demise of the great Temple in Jerusalem around 70 AD They became prominent in manyRead MoreThe Destruction Of The Temple Essay1388 Words   |  6 PagesTestament. Torah reading was performed by the leaders and was viewed as a way to act in the image of God. As for those times they failed to act according to the Law, the Torah provided the means for atoning through animal sacrifice. As for the use of a synagogue, they were created after the destruction of the first Temple to counter the Missing Temple at that time (Fine; Marx) To understand the distinct points on the major Jewish practices, you must see that Judaism was outlined with constant change in worshippingRead MoreThe Biblical Story Of The Exodus Out Of Jews1261 Words   |  6 Pageslocated in New York City and he began the rigorous six year- long program during the fall of 1999. Henceforth when Rabbi C initially began rabbinical school he was not interested in becoming a rabbi of a synagogue or engaging in a pulpit position. Rabbi C was adamant about either engaging in a chaplain role at a medical facility, teaching in various academic settings or at a summer camp. Once he had completed the mandated requirements for the six-year program he would partake in a rabbinical ordinationRead MoreA Study on Shabbat Essay937 Words   |  4 Pagesdipped in salt. B) Give an account of the Havdalah ceremony. Havdalah literally means a separation or division. Havdalah is the ceremony that separates Shabbat from the rest of the week. The ceremony can be performed in the synagogue or at home. During the ceremony, a prayer is said which explains the distinctions God makes e.g. light and dark, Shabbat and the rest of the week. On the table there is a glass of red wine which is blessed, and then some of which Read MoreThe Anshe Chesed Fairmount Temple1328 Words   |  6 Pagesactions and become a bar mitzvah or bat mitzvah, respectively. The words bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah translate to â€Å"son of commandment† and â€Å"daughter of commandment† in English. The boy’s grandfather also suggested for me to sit in the back left of the synagogue as family and friends would sit elsewhere. The service started out with two chants led by the cantor, with the rabbi standing alongside the cantor. Both were standing behind the bimah, which is an altar-like podium in which the Torah and ProphetsRead MoreThe Destruction Of The Second Temple1558 Words   |  7 PagesMiddle East and was established with the biblical patriarch Abraham (Department of Local Government and Communities 2015). Abraham is seen to be the founder of Judaism and the ancestor of the Jews. Apart from Judaism, Abraham also has a significant role in other Abrahamic religions such as Christianity and Islam. X iefan (2000) describes Judaism as an ethical monotheism that is believed by Jewish people. The Torah - the first five books of the Hebrew Bible - is their foundational text and it incorporatesRead MoreDifferent Branches Of Judaism And Conservative Judaism843 Words   |  4 Pagesdenominations over the years has been the differing roles of males and females. The two branches are the most vastly different and have undergone the most changes in the area of gender roles are Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism. The changes in gender roles in these two branches will be discussed in this paper. In early Orthodox Judaism in the United States (1700-1850), the main issue concerning women was how they were going to fit them into the synagogue for services and rituals. Up to this pointRead MoreEssay on Jewish Women in Medieval Ashkenaz1547 Words   |  7 Pages They could not be members of community courts, they were not members in synagogue communities, nor were they charity collectors. In the thirteenth century, the attendance of women in the synagogue drastically dwindled. It was common at the time for women to avoid synagogue when menstruating. Soon, it became expected of all women to avoid the synagogue during menstruation, leaving those women to pray outside. The synagogue was the place for important and personal events in the community, which resultedRead MoreExegesis – Luke 4:14-301559 Words   |  7 Pageswilderness where the power of the Holy Spirit assisted him in fighting the temptations of the devil. In this story, Jesus goes to the synagogue on the Sabba th and is now said to be reading from the Torah as was customary. This means that Jesus regularly does this which shows that he is a devout Jew. It was important for him to rest on the Sabbath and go to the synagogue for scripture and teaching on this day. Luke has followed this account with miracle and healing stories depicting Jesus as a compassionateRead MoreThe Torah Is The Most Important Text Of The Jewish Faith1496 Words   |  6 PagesBefore we can compare the role of the Torah in Orthodox and Conservative Judaism, we need to know what the Torah is and what is contains. The Torah is the most important text of the Jewish faith. It contains the first five books of Moses in the Hebrew bible, or the Tanach. The first book, Genesis, talks about how the world was created by god then subsequently destroyed by him because of the wickedness within it. Exodus talks about how Moses, who was raised by the Egyptian Pharaoh, left Egypt, only

Friday, December 20, 2019

How the Fast Food Affects Our Lives - 1795 Words

Nhung Mai Professor Orozco English 301 B 10 December 2011 How the Fast Food Affects Our Lives Many American children like eating fast food even though it is unhealthy because it is tasty and fast services. They do not have to wait for foods when they are hungry. They can receive foods within 10 or 15 minutes. Fast foods actually are very convenient for everybody when they do not have time to cook and have to have foods for children. However, there are the many serious effects of fast food to children. The children have to face high risks to their health when fast food contributes to children’s obesity. Obesity is a big problem to children’s health because children can develop many serious diseases. There are â€Å"more than 30 medical†¦show more content†¦They will be separated with the communities when they feel so shy with big bodies. They do not want play sports because their bodies let them move harder and slower. They feel too tired to play again. They just want to sit down, watch the game and eat. Therefore, ob esity prevents children to join in many social activities. It is hard to bring them many opportunities to have a high social status in the future. They may get worse if they are too fat, even they are going to die. It will end up the new workforce to develop the US economy because children are the future of the country. One of the reasons that parents are being fooled by fast food companies do not make any specific claims about the healthfulness or calorie content of their menu items. Zinczenko notes that â€Å"advertisements don’t carry warning labels the way tobacco ads do†¦ Some fast-food purveyors will provide calorie information on request, but even that can be hard to understand.† (154)Some kind of fast food does not have the label about the nutrition on the menus or on the hamburger in the fast food restaurant. There are some tiny words to write how much calories that contains in a fast food meal but parents are hard to recognize when the picture of a big M ac is big, multicolored and attractive. The nutrition label will tell parents how many calories children have when they consume a hamburger at fast food restaurant. If children do not eat fast food and they have healthyShow MoreRelatedDisadvantages Of Fast Food1566 Words   |  7 PagesFast food is taking over many people’s lives living around the world. Many people all over the United States are overweight or obese due to eating so much fast food. Fast food affects peoples physical weight, emotional and mental health and media influence. There are no advantages to eating fast food, especially at a young age. Fast food is a scary road to turn down as a young kid growing up into an adult. Fast food is pretty much its own simple definition when you think about it, it is literallyRead MoreUnderstanding The Impact Of Junk Food Essay1510 Words   |  7 Pages: Understanding the Impact of Junk Food INTRODUCTION Junk Food is that type of food which doesn’t contain nutritional value. It do not contain high level of calories and has little protein, vitamins and minerals. Such foods are also not good for health and has negative effects after consuming them. Why there is a More Demand of Junk Food? There are following reasons which shows that why people are attracted towards junk food:- â ¦  Preparation of junk food doesn’t take so much time and it isRead MoreIn Praise Of Fast Food Summary877 Words   |  4 PagesEngland, Rachel Lauden grew up eating farm fresh foods. She later obtained an education and went on teaching at universities in many different places. Shortly after, she composed articles about the history behind cooking and culinary heritage (Faigley 269). Lauden is very passionate about gastronomy, the science of healthy eating (â€Å"Gastronomy†). Her passion for the intricate culinary history shows throughout her authored work, â€Å"In Praise of Fast Food†. The author catches the reader’s attention becauseRead MoreFast Food And The Dark Side Of All American Meals1027 Words   |  5 PagesThe obesity rate is twice the proportion in Taiwan compared to Korea. I think this number is an admonishment to let us to know that eating junk food not only affects people’s health, but also influences the country’s develo pment. There are many books and movies, coving fast food and the dark side of all American meals. According to Eric Schlosser, â€Å"Fast food is now so commonplace that it has acquired an air of inevitability, as though it were somehow unavoidable, a fact of modern life†(7). In factRead MoreObesity Of People : Obesity1004 Words   |  5 Pagesand more technology to make our lives easier (and lazier),fast food chains on every block (unhealthy foods are much less expensive than the healthy foods we should be eating) and are all factors to weight gain in our country.Obesity can be divided into three main causes – diet, lifestyle and education. One of the chief causes is diet. Young Emiratis eat more and more high-carbohydrate, high-fat burgers and pizza in fast-food restaurants. However, some traditional foods are also very oily, and becauseRead MoreThe Benefits Of Junk Food710 Words   |  3 PagesDo you know how Im going to make America better? As President, I will make su re provided food is healthier. Junk food is defined as food with little nutritional value. Also, it is very high on calories and fats. Fats from unhealthy food trigger the brain to want more. If you eat unhealthy food, it can lead to heart disease. For the past 30 years, the number of overweight teenagers has been tripled and also the number of overweight children has been doubled. Making food healthier will benefit allRead MoreThe Fast Food Industry Has a Harmful Effect on Society1211 Words   |  5 PagesThesis: The fast food industry has a harmful affect on society. Topic Sentence 1: Fast food causes Coronary Artery Disease. Topic Sentence 2: Fast food is popular among our nation. Topic Sentence 3: The environment is affected by the fast food industry. We provide food that customers love, day after day after day. People just want more of it†(Ray Kroc, Founder of McDonald’s). Coronary Artery Disease is a type of heart disease and the most common cause of heart attacks. Plaque from eating unhealthyRead MoreObesity Epidemic : A Growing Problem Within Our Population861 Words   |  4 Pagesproblem within our population. With serious health issues associated with obesity, it is a problem that needs to be addressed and changed. While fast foods have been around for a long time, many people claim that fast food places are to blame. Each day people turn to fast food for a quick meal, wether it is breakfast, lunch, dinner, or even snacks. As fast foods begin to expand and progress throughout the world, people especially in the United States, have started to blame fast foods for their healthRead MoreTeen Obesity Essay1378 Words   |  6 Pagescom. In the US the food proportions are a lot larger than the proportions in other parts of the world. Also, there are more variations of food and more types of food to indulge on. This is supported by greed. People feel the need to want anything and everything. Most teenagers do not know their limits. Once they have something they want more of it. If not then once they have something they want something else. Also, adolescents are lazy they eat fast food, and microwavable food instead of cookingRead MoreFast Food Is Bad For Our Health855 Words   |  4 Pagesgetting fast food for them and their family so they went have to cook. You can get fast food almost on every corner of a street and on any continent you go to. Fast food is now starting to invade non fast food eater’s lives by offering so called health items on the menu. Fast food is everywhere and people don’t consider what’s in the fast food they eat. What it could do to our health and why you feel sluggish, and when I go will I get a rude employee because her boss was angry at her, how people gain

Thursday, December 12, 2019

In Todays World There Are Many Moral Issues That Take Place In Society Essay Example For Students

In Todays World There Are Many Moral Issues That Take Place In Society Essay In todays world there are many moral issues that take place in society as well as in the business world. On Friday, February 4, 2000, the Washington Post printed an article titled Underage Smoking Fine Sought for Big Tobacco. Currently and in the past, the tobacco industry has fought many moral issues with the Federal Government and the general public. This particular article written by Charles Babington has two problems, which are, the federal governments threat to increase taxes and fines on the tobacco industry and the industries practice in their advertising which is targeting underage smokers. The first problem the article states is that the Federal Government is threatening to raise taxes on cigarettes and issue fines for any underage smoking. Fining underage smoking could be a possible ploy for the government to raise taxes on all tobacco products. By issuing a $3,000 fine for every underage smoker, the government would generate as much as 6 billion dollars a year. In addition to the fines, President Clinton may also propose to put a 25-cent-per-pack increase in the Federal tax on cigarettes. The moral aspect of this problem is that the federal government is receiving billions off of raising taxes on tobacco products and fines for underage smoking. This money is absorbed into the government and redistributed into society towards other social issues. The excess money the government collects on higher tobacco taxes and fines issued to for underage smoking should be used to educate the general public on how the tobacco companies are providing a dangerous product and can be extremely harmful to the human body. The government also needs to provide a program to help prevent underage smoking in the future. Another problem that was stated in the article was that the tobacco industry was targeting new underage smokers. The underage smokers were targeted through the advertisements on radio programs, television commercials, and social events that young people attend. The advertisements of cigarettes on TV and radio commercials stopped over 20 years ago and at that time the underage smoking did not stop. It is stated that in November 1998, the tobacco industry agreed once again to set restrictions on how cigarettes may be sold and marketed, barring companies from targeting youth in advertising and using cartoons in promotions (Babington, A07). The cigarettes companies were also prohibited from sponsoring sports teams, stadiums, or events such as NASCAR in which participants are underage. Accompanying this problem is the moral issue that banning advertisements on the radio and TV is not enough to prevent underage smoking. The industry needs to reveal in their advertisements the negative aspe ct of tobacco products. As stated in Moral Issues in Business, When advertisers conceal facts, they suppress information that is unflattering to their products. That is, they neglect to mention or distract consumers attention away from information, knowledge of which would probably make their products less desirable. (Shaw, Barry 474). Every advertiser wants their advertisement to be very attractive to the consumer. Until underage smoking is controlled, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) needs to continue to regulate the sales of cigarettes more carefully because 90 percent of all smokers get hooked before the age of 21. The FDAs main focus is to discourage young people from taking up cigarettes in the first place (Shaw, Barry 460). After analyzing this particular article, I found moral issues that need to be addressed and resolved. My moral values are from a solid foundation involving religion and social customs. It is against the Catholic religion to subject a human body to any harm, especially harm that would result in death. It is proven by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), smoking remains the leading cause of preventable deaths in the United States and is responsible for 16% of all deaths nationwide (Shaw, Barry 460). Social customs are that the youth should not be using an adult product. Since there is an age limit on the purchase of cigarettes, any minor violating this rule is committing a crime. If adults dont enforce the law for underage smoking, they are also guilty of committing a crime. .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .postImageUrl , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:hover , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:visited , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:active { border:0!important; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:active , .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1 .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8f327cb41039e192200a067daeb2f7e1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Enric Miralles - Time Architecture EssayMy moral view of raising taxes and issuing fines on tobacco products is that the money should have an immediate impact on society and used towards the prevention of youth smoking. The resolution to the moral dilemma in this article is if the government is going to rise taxes on tobacco products, the money received from the taxes should be redistributed to an well-organized anti-tobacco program. This program should include regulatory enforcement form the FDA on the addictive substance, nicotine. The tobacco companies should be responsible for providing a product that does not cause physical addiction. The fines issued for underage smoking should be directly redistributed into educating the general public and prevention of accessibility to tobacco products. This would include additional law enforcement and administrative costs. Fifty percent of the fines collected should be used towards researching a cure for nicotine addiction. Resolving the moral issue with advertising tobacco products, tobacco companies should be banned from all public advertisement including all sporting events unless they agree to provide more resources to prevent underage smoking. The current TV commercial advertising today, portrays the tobacco companies as being law abiding and self-regulating companies. These same commercials contain actual teenagers desiring to purchase tobacco products. The purchase of tobacco products is portrayed as an acceptable social behavior to young people. These solutions are truly moral solutions because it forces the Tobacco Company to redirect funds to address social issue of underage smoking and it also helps reduce the risk of tobacco addiction. In conclusion, if the tobacco industries refuse to voluntarily address the issues with advertisement of tobacco products and does not support the campaign to reduce underage smoking, the government needs to intervene. Prior to this intervention, the government needs to have a well-developed plan to assure the taxes and fines will be distributed directly to the issues of underage smoking. Work CitedBabington, Charles. Underage Smoking Fine Sought for Big Tobacco.Washington Post. 4 Feb. 2000. Sec A: Page A06,07Shaw, William H. and Vincent Barry. Moral Issues in Business. Belmont,CA: Wadsworth, 1998.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Goran Kapicic at Actavis China free essay sample

Question 1 : Identify the factors that contributed to Kapicic’s successful turn-around of the company It can probably be seen that there are many factors that contributed to the successful turnover of Kapicic. However, from my point of view, there are three main factors that brought about the success of Kapicic which are his education background, understanding of Chinese culture and the way he influenced his employees. Firstly, Kapicic was privileged to be born in an well – educated family. His characteristics were mostly influenced by his father’s philosophy which made him to work first, if he wants to enjoy a wealthy life afterwards and his father had always been strict to him. Such rigid disciplines had built up important characteristics and working ethic for his future career. Furthermore, after graduated from the University of Zagreb, Kapicic had started working as marketing and sales manager before he was moved to Beijing. It might be true to say that he had a careful preparation for his life long career in China. We will write a custom essay sample on Goran Kapicic at Actavis China or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Secondly, living in China for more than 19 years had built Kapicic a substantial knowledge of the Chinese market , culture and people. In an interview, Kapicic once stated :â€Å"I strongly believe that leaders need to know their business inside out. They need to understand their people and operations.† (Pg 4, Goran Kapicic at Actavis China). Additionally, Kapicic also understood the concept of face which is very important for doing business in China. For example, he gave Li the largest office of the company even bigger than his own office and he never treated his employees at a lower level. He called them his partner, instead. Finally , the most crucial factor is the way that he influenced people. Actavis was initially a lost-making firm with a lot of negativity. When taking over Actavis, Kapicic had brought a brand new refreshing leadership style. It is understandable that Kapicic spent most of his effort on improving staff quality because he understood clearly that people are the fundamental unit of an organization. One of his successful strategies is to never treat his subordinate as second-in-command and he left the autonomy to his employees, which means they had their own decision and solution to the issue. However, he always offered a listening ear and useful advises to anyone who was in need. Delegating the right things to the right people as well as thoroughly praising them also had a remarkable result in influencing people, too. Song  Chenya – his sales manager were strongly motivated by Kapicic. He felt trustworthy and more responsible working with Kapicic. However, painful decisions are unavoidable in doing business and he had made some difficult decision to fire some employees who stood in the way of this company moving ahead. Facing the loss of the whole sales team due to conflict with the sales manager, Kapicic didn’t compromise and make the uncompromising decision. As a result, the sales departure then could recruit an excellent salesperson from other company, the tough decision of Kapicic had finally paid off. Question 2 : Critically discuss Kapicic’s leadership style. According to Don and John (2011), transformational leadership involves anticipating future trends, inspiring followers to understand and embrace a new vision of possibilities , developing others to be leaders or better leaders and building the organization or group into a community of challenged and rewarded learners. In brief, a transformational leader can be described as visionary, inspiring, daring and ethical. Considering thoroughly Kapicic’s personalities and characteristics, we can conclude that Kapicic obtains the transformational leadership style. His leadership style was shown clearly through the three crucial priorities that he embraced. First of all , Kapicic believes that he had the ultimate responsible for providing strategies to achieve the European standards as well as to make profit for the firm. He had carried out some main changes to in the firm by changing its working culture and ethics, replacing key personnel such as Song and Li. In his belief, people are the determinant of the success of a firm, therefore, he put most of his efforts in developing his staffs and employees Second of all, Kapicic is quite a challenge lover. He has never been afraid to take on difficult tasks. For him, rescuing a failing company makes him excited and successfully achieving something that is described as â€Å"mission impossible† is an ultimate challenge to him . When he first came to China in 2005, Actavis was well-known for its negativity and bad image in many business forums. However, after 6 years with attempts to recover the company, it has changed from a loss-making company to a profitable one. Furthermore, the responsibility and enthusiasm of workers have also been improved. Previously, when there came troubles, there were only finger-pointing blaming at each other. Now, everyone takes part for the mistake they made and start working altogether to solve the problem. Third of all, Kapicic has been ultimately inspirational to his employees. Kapicic believed that inspiration and motivation doesn’t come only from speeches and talks. Leaders need to understand their people and operations, talk to their people, listen to them and also share information with them. Not only Kapicic has successfully motivated his employees, he also developed other people to become leader, too. Let’s take Song Chenya – Manager of Sales Department as an obvious example, Kapicic trusted Song’s strategies and talents and gave Song opportunity to take control over his work which made Song feel very content. Within 16 months working at Actavis with the eager of learning and hard-working, Song became the manager of both sales department, leading the team of 90 people. It’s quite true to say that under Kapicic’s leadership style, Song has strongly developed his characteristics to be a leader, too. Furthermore, Kapicic believed that developing more leaders for the company is his mission, too , since the company cannot rely on Li and him solely. However, there are some drawbacks in Kapicic’s leadership style. For instance, leaving the autonomy to the employees without supervising closely might lead to the result that the vision of the leader and the understanding of his employee are wrongly aligned. Furthermore, lazy and unmotivated staffs will easily exploit the given empowerment, becoming lazy and not focusing on the job. Nevertheless, this could be overcome by a close supervision to each assigned task and a well – established compensation system. Question 3. Kapicic obviously places much emphasis on staff development. How should he manage this effort when the company operates in a highly competitive environment with low margins? It is quite true to say that Kapicic placed most of his effort in developing employees since he strongly believed that people are the determinant of an organization and it requires a high-quality developmental program for a good outcome. However, Actavis has just moved from making loss to earning its very first profit and generic drug industry is a highly competitive market with thin margins. Therefore, to take on the decision whether to invest strongly in developing staffs and employees, there are few things that need  to be thoroughly considered. First of all, was it the right time for the investment in developing employees. If so, how should employees be classified and ranked for the development process. Second of all, what kind of developmental programs should be selected, or should Actavis employees be developed through on-the-job experience ? Furthermore, who shoul d be in charge as company’s training providers ? Firstly, I strongly believe that it is the exact time to invest on developing staffs. Employees need not only to be enhanced in specialized skills but also intrapersonal ones, how to interact with or to motivate other people in order to work smoothly with each other for a better outcome. Additionally, choosing the right employees for the development process is important, too. It will help to save not only the explicit cost ( money spent on establishing the course ) but also the implicit cost (time that employees spent on studying instead of manufacturing). For example, employees from departments such as manufacturing, RD should be classified as theoretical-oriented. On the other hand, those from sales , marketing, HR departments would need intrapersonal skills more. Thus, classifying employees plays a very important role in saving cost for the company. Additionally, ranking employees is important, too. There are many ways that a manager can rank his/her employees, however, I believe that employees should be ranked base on their performance, and for each level of performance there will be a different developmental program. People whose performance are the best should deserve a high-level training program , and those who have the lowest outcome should be fired. Secondly, It is my belief that Actavis China should chose an on-the-job training program for several reasons. First of all, it does not require the development of potentially expensive training facilities . Company does not have to pay a training company/college. Furthermore, it is the senior highly skilled and experience staffs who will teach the new staff the exact skills they need for a particular job. Second of all, since on-the-job training is performed right at the work area, training tends to be focused on practical learning. Furthermore, restructuring the compensation and benefit system is also a solution that a manger could come up with. A well designed system will not only save money for the company but also increase the job satisfaction for  the employees. Remember that benefits that the employees receive extra are not necessarily money. For example, health and life insurance could be offered for workers to relieve them from certain fears ( injury, death ). We all have different kinds of needs. Some of us want money so they work for the company which gives them higher pay. Some value achievement more than money, they would associate themselves with firms which offer greater chances of promotion, learning and development. A compensation plan that hits workers’ needs is more likely to motivate them to act in the desired way. Question 4: How will news of the acquisition by Watson affect the employees of Actavis China? Is there anything Kapicic can do in advance so his people will be better prepared? On the 25th of April 2012, the event that Watson had acquired Actavis Group for approximately EUR4.25 billion to become the third largest worldwide generics company was publicly announced. This event obviously would cause some dramatic changes in the structure of Actavis company as well as negative effects on the employees morale. First of all, this event would initially result in a stressful and nervous workplace. Changing has never been easy to both employees and managers, especially when they cannot involve in making decision that has great impacts on their job – the fear of being under control of somebody else who doesn’t have the same experience and expertise. Consequently, this would affect the performance of the company negatively. Second of all is the fear of losing job. Hardly ever do two organizations have the same culture and characteristics, therefore when they come together as one, conflicts are unavoidable. According to Linda Pophal – a communication consultant with Strategic Communications, LLC, â€Å"as these groups get to know each other there will inevitably be conflict and perceived or real losses on both sides†. The loss could be their jobs, their opportunities or even the formal power that they previously had. This fear thus has negative effects on the productivity as well as the spirit of employees, some might even quit the job to look for somewhere else better. Third of all, competition and attempt to keep the jobs or to protect the position in the company will result in hatred and conflict between the old employees and the new comers in the company. Such competitiveness will obviously result in lower performance , cold tension and stress at workplace or sometimes even violence. Acquisition and merger happens frequently in business nowadays, however changing and adapting to new things has hardly ever been easy. Some may refuse to change, some may even quit the job for another opportunity. During the acquisitions and mergers, I strongly believe that the manager plays a crucial role in helping his employees to overcome these difficulties. The below are several recommended strategies that a Kapicic could do to help his employees. Firstly, being empathetic and supportive is very important. Understanding how difficult it is for the employee to change is necessary. Kapicic should put himself in his employees’ shoes to identify those who are in trouble of the changes and help them to overcome it. When employees can feel the empathy and the concerning attitudes of the manager, they will willingly start to provide information. Such openness also help to build up collaborative problems solving, which may overcome barriers to change. Secondly, providing a clearly upcoming plan for the acquisition is also a very effective strategy. It might be better to have your employees carefully prepared and know certainly what they need to do. Finally, staff communication is crucial. People are more likely to resist change when there are uncertain and vague information. Communicating effectively can reduce gossip, rumors and fears among the employees. The less information management shares with employees, the more employees will engage in speculation about the upcoming transaction. Minimal communication from management leads to drops in employee morale, productivity and job satisfaction. Effective company management can hold meetings and provide frequent communications with employees to explain the acquisition reasons and provide an integration plan and timeline so employees feel they are part of the process.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America

Introduction Capital punishment has otherwise been referred to as death sentence or death penalty. It can also be used to refer to legal execution of a convicted individual or through a judicial process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The capital punishment has always been used in situations where an individual or criminal is judicially convicted of a capital offence or capital crime (Milhorn 401). It is important to examine the origin of capital punishment. The capital is a term that was coined from the Latin word â€Å"capitalis† which actually, in its literal sense means â€Å"gaze at the head.† So it means that initially, capital punishment was a situation where a convicted criminal had his or her head judicially severed. Nonetheless, it is important to note that capital punishment, in the past, has virtua lly been utilized every society (Milhorn 401). However, available literature indicates that only 58 countries of the world still practice capital punishment; this represents only approximately 5% of all countries in the world. The meaning of this is that about 95% of all countries in the world have turned away from using capital punishment to contain crimes. In many countries, capital punishment is still a subject of hot debate in many countries, including the United States of America, and standpoints can vary within a given singular cultural religion amongst a group of individuals or political ideology (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46). Amongst the nations that do not recognize capital punishment as a form of deterring or terminating the commission of capital offences are those that are found within the European Union. This is well spelt in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Even though the Transparency International consider most countries as abolitionists against capital punishment, research findings indicate that more than 60% of the worlds population reside in countries where capital punishment is still an option for punishing or deterring capital offenders. Example of such countries where capital punishment is still an option are the United States of America, the People’s Republic of China and Indonesia (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57). However, looking at the contemporary society, the global distribution of death penalty has been varying greatly with some countries and states abolishing and reinstating capital punishments.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since the end of the Second World War, the global tendency toward abolishing the death penalty has been on the rise. According to available information, there are countries that have abolished death sentencing completely; some have only allowed it under special or specific circumstan ces while others are yet to make their decisions and take a stand on abolishing it. Even though death penalty is still being practiced in a significant number of developed nations, it was widely practiced in developing countries most of which were under the control of repressive, dictatorial or totalitarian governments. With regard to this, it will be accurate to argue that that capital punishment has some times been used for political reasons to contain political dissidents. The death punishment in America is varied depending with jurisdictions. Practically, death punishment in the United States of America is only applicable in cases of motivated murder and more remotely for felony assassination or what is otherwise referred to as indenture murder. The (capital) punishment is believed to have been there even at the time of the earlier colonies of the United States; it as well continued to be in force within the states that came to form afterwards. In the process of judicial executi on, the methods are different and depended on the type of criminal activity committed. The first to be sentenced to capital punishment in America was executed in 1608; the person was judicially executed after being convicted of spying on behalf of the government of Spain. Afterwards, the capital punishment in the United States have been abolished and reinstated for a significant number of times. Nonetheless, several states within the United States apply capital punishment for differently in relation to crime committed (Clarke and Whitt, pp.03-68). This positional paper will argue in favor of death penalties. To this effect, the paper will examine the various reason death penalty is still appropriate and important towards containing certain types of criminal activities. Moreover, the paper will utilize the ideas such as DNA evidences and other forms of evidences as they relate to death as a penalty. The various impact of banning death as a penalty will also form part of the themes in this paper. Abolitionists’ Views In order to get the basis on which to understand the significance of capital punishment, it is important to start by looking at arguments against the judicial execution.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to note that even though death penalty has gained support from various individuals, private organizations and state institutions, the subject is still hotly detested; there are a significant number of people or group of individuals who cannot see the positive side of capital punishment. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots. The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Ho ward. Meanwhile, it was Cesare strongly campaigned against capital punishment the world over. Beccaria hypothesized that the state does not encompass any validation to take away life either for a group of individuals or an individual. The work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. In fact, the influence of this theory achieved some grounds worldwide where some countries actually abolished death penalty as a way of judicial killing. The ideas of Beccaria on death penalty had great influence on the American intellectuals who fought for its abolishment except in extreme cases like treason and crimes of murder. The abolitionist movement has argued, borrowing from Beccaria’s arguments, that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent to crimes for which it is meted. During the early part of the 19th century, abolitionist movement gained momentum in the United States of America and consequently some states revised their statutes in relation to capital punishment. Even so, more states maintained their capital punishment statutes. By the time the United States was facing the First World War, capital punishment was reinstated; this could be interpreted as a blow to the anti-capital punishment crusaders. As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of incontrovertible arguments that are worth acknowledging. They have argued that there exist nothing like humane method of judicial execution irrespective of what crime the convict might have committed to warrant death sentence. These people state that execution is torturous to a convicted criminal and that it must be realized that the criminals are also human beings with human feelings and fear of losing their families. Moreover, an argument has been advanced that the mental conditions of the convicted as at the time of commission of capital offense is not usually gi ven the attention it requires; besides, it is noted that from the time capital punishment is pronounced on a convict upto the time when execution takes place, the convict undergoes a lot of psychological torture and mental disturbance. This causes more suffering to the convict than the commission of offence may warrant.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most important point raised by those arguing against capital punishment is the virtual conviction that there may be a miscarriage of righteousness where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this takes place. Due to this uncertainty, many individuals have petitioned and pressurized states to consider abolishing death penalties in their judicial systems. Another argument advanced by anti-capital punishment crusaders is that the families of the convicts should not be overlooked. They say that the families also feel pain when they realize there loved ones are to be judicially executed; the families of the convicts are said to go through hell during the time starting from the pronouncement of death sentence to the actual execution of the convicted criminal. Racism has been linked to unjustified death sentences where members of a given race are more likely to be handed death penalty than others. For instance, it is estimated t hat black capital criminals are highly likely to get death penalty where the victims are mostly whites; in cases involving black victims, white capital offenders are most likely to escape death penalties. Meanwhile, there are so many reasons the anti-capital punishment crusaders have advanced against death penalty. However, maintenance of death penalty in the penal code is still very important in terms of certain crime prevention. The Need for Capital Punishment As much as there have been oppositions to death penalty by human rights and activists and other abolitionists, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment r emains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention (Council of Europe, pp.3-13). The argument between those for the death penalties has been going on for sometimes now in the United States of America. There are many people who have tried by all means available to them to push the state to abolish death penalty. However, the fact is that death penalty is necessary in cases of certain crimes like serial killing, abduction and rape of underage children and other forms of felony. Those opposed to death penalty base their arguments on the possibilities of convicting and subsequently executing an innocent person (Council of Europe, pp. 15-25). The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect. One striking fact is that before someone is convicted of a felony and sentenced to death, through investigation must be conducted ; the process of conducting such investigations includes the use of scientific techniques like DNA tests even though this has been faulted to have possible errors of proof just like any other means of determining the guilt of a criminal offender. Most important to note is the fact that the conviction process does not only utilize one means of determining whether one is guilty or innocent, a combination of methodological techniques is used so that one technique is highly likely to examine what is beyond the scope of another. It is important to note that those arguing against the death penalty have advanced some arguments that are both logical and realistic. However, they seem to be oblivious of the fact that the process of conviction is so elaborate and effective that the chances of convicting an innocent individual is actually close to unlikely (Council of Europe, pp. 15-30). Moreover, it is still wrong to argue that death punishment may condemn an otherwise innocent person to death . There is absolutely no proof for this claim; before anybody faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed. Therefore, the likelihood of any innocent individual being executed by mistake is actually limited. Given the perpetually improving forensic science, the chances of judicial execution of an innocent individual is nearing zero. It therefore implies that the fear of executing an innocent person judicially should not now be amongst the reasons anti-capital punishment crusaders use against the death penalty (Gershman, pp. 107-117). The inappropriateness of capital punishment has also been widely propagated through the various media. The fact is that the media has always confused the true distinction between the t erms â€Å"acquittal† and â€Å"innocence† as they are used in the justice system. It is this confusion in the media’s judicial reporting that present the public with the belief that those who escape convictions are actually innocent individuals who would otherwise be executed for a given crime. The clear characteristic is that innocence suggests that the individual did not indulge in the offense although being exonerated does not imply innocence. The fact is that the court is likely to acquit a suspect in cases where the defendants are not able to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the accused actually committed the offense. It is in such cases where the court has acquitted an individual, irrespective of whether he or she committed the crime or not, due to lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt that the media has taken it as if the court has found the individual innocent. In summary, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but who se guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. This is also a proving ground on which capital punishment should not be abolished (Gershman, pp. 131-140). The possible conviction and subsequent execution of an innocent individual is unfortunate by all standards of justice available. But, it is noteworthy that the unfortunate scenario can not only be avoided through abolition of death penalty. Instead, the immense role played by death penalty in terms of criminal deterrence should appear in the bigger picture. Even if innocent people can mistakenly be executed for crimes they have not committed or abated, their number may not match those offenders who qualify for death penalty. This implies that the probability of executing an innocent person is immensely insignificant and hence should not be a reason for which death penalty should be abolished. Besides, in the recent past, there has never been heard of a situation where and individual has mistaken ly been convicted and sentenced to death. This reinforces the argument that the chances of executing an innocent person are very limited and almost unlikely (Gershman, pp. 202-213). Looking at the bigger picture, it is important to acknowledge that there are some career criminals whose existence means perpetual threat to social tranquility besides creating social disorder. For example, a career criminal whose presence in any setting is always defined by violence and even death might have been in and out of jail. This implies that such as criminal cannot be rehabilitated through jailing and hence the need to eliminate him or her from the society. In this case, death penalty may not be considered as a punishment to the offender, but should be seen as a way of ensuring that a single individual or few people do not threaten the overall social peace within a given society. In relation to this, it will be noted that judicial execution is an effective way of stopping capital offenses. Ther e may be many criminals who carry out capital offenses, but the judicially executed ones will never commit such crimes again. The victims of criminals vary in terms of gender and age. In many cases, there are vulnerable groups which suffer in the hands of certain offenders. For example, children and women are the most likely victims of sex offenders. Sex offenders are normally handed more severe punishment than other offenders. This is acknowledgeable, but the fact is that punishment should not be seen in terms of what kind of offence is committed; it should be viewed in the light of what effects or impacts it is likely to have on the general public, especially with respect to right to life and other fundamental freedoms. In this case, it will be defeating to logic to let an individual whose behavior has proved heinous to the general public to continue living amongst the members of the society; this will simply offer such an individual more opportunities to continue with is heinous act. If left unchecked through death, such individuals are likely to remain threats to the neighborhood of their residence. So, the only way to ensure they do not continue with their socially threatening undertakings is sentence them to death (Gershman, pp. 231-137). Generally, punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. In view of this, it is worth mentioning that death sentence is a unique its own capacity as a deterrence to reoccurrences of particular crimes. Unlike other penalties, death is not meant to teach the convicted a lesson. It performs two levels of functions; one, it simply puts an end to heinous criminal activities by a specific individual. This implies that there may be other criminals committing similar crimes but the actions by the executed individual are completely terminated. Two, it is a fact that many people fear dying; and the constitutional provide for death as a penalty to deter an individual from committing certain crimes. Therefore, in situati ons where a convicted individual is executed, the message is not to the executed but to those who are yet to commit a similar act. This is what is referred to as general deterrence or indirect deterrence to crime. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties. The study findings further indicate that each death sentence pronounced resulted into 4.5 reductions in murder crimes while each execution led to reductions in murders by three. Research studies have also been conducted within the United States of America and the findings shows that the rate of homicide increased by 91% in the states where death penalty was abolished. Meanwhile, 70% of the states are reported to have experienced a decline in homicide after the state s had re-introduced death penalty (Espejo, pp1-15). Data collected from the general public are in agreement with the sentiment that capital punishment should not be abolished. Many of the surveyed public members of various countries have expressed their sentiments that retribution for the criminal activities committed against them, their relatives and friends is more significant to them than deterrence. An important point to take into consideration is that many criminals have been executed since death penalty was introduced several decades ago. This means that the justice system has actually not been sufficiently equipped to handle the criminals and hence failed to reform their behaviors. For instance, different sex offenders have been caught severally in different cases. The fact therefore is that the threat of death has not deterred them, so the focus shifts from rehabilitating the criminals to protecting the safety of the general members of the society; and this is through legall y eliminating them by execution. The argument here may be that death penalty has not succeeded to deter such heinous criminal activities; nonetheless, it is better to have new people committing the crime dealt with rather than let individuals to live and repeatedly commit there heinous acts. This makes sure one does not perpetually commit the offence (Espejo, pp.34-38). Death penalty has been limited to certain age. In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United State of America made a ruling that adolescent individuals are not subject to capital punishment. The ruling was premised on the research done by the American Psychological Association. The research findings claimed that adolescents are less mature than the adults and hence are subject such factors as peer pressures, difficulties in restraining their impulses and the general underdeveloped sense or responsibility. This research made the Supreme Court to rule that people under the age of 18 years old cannot be handed death sentence . The Supreme Court ruling on this matter is not sustainable in terms of ensuring justice for all citizens, especially the victims whose only hope is retribution for criminal acts committed against them. It implies that victims of heinous activities committed by the less than 18 years old criminals can never get justice yet the state is mandated to ensure justice and safety for all. The fact is that, in terms of development, there is a thin line between an 18 year old and 17 years old individuals and thus adult age may not imply. The 17 year old averagely thinks just like an 18 year old individual. In this case, age should not be a factor in determining who gets death sentence and does not. Every behavioral activity should be considered with respect to its danger to the members of the society (Espejo, pp.132-146). Death sentence should apply to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. For instance, the vi ctim of rape by a less than 18 year old teenager will have the same horrible experience as the victim of rape by some who is 18 years and above. The death penalty should therefore be applied for the safety of all members of the society. The rationale here is that the magnitude of pain inflicted through heinous act is totally independent on the age of the offender and that is what should actually inform the justice process. It has also been argued that death punishment is cruel an unusual to both the convict and the convict’s family members and friends. Those who pose this argument are oblivious of the fact that the victim and his or her families and friends also have the same experience. To argue on the cruelty about the cruelty of capital punishment meted to a convict and remain silent on the side of the victim actually defeats the logic of justice. One thing that is important to be borne in mind that the convicted criminal must have been aware of the consequences of committ ing capital offenses. This is reinforced by the fact that the consequences of crimes are well spelt in the statutory books and have been in existence for very many years. Again, it is worth recalling that every judicial execution taking place now, especially in the 21st century, is not the first ones; the executions have been going on since over a thousand years ago. It is therefore a common knowledge that every criminal should know the most probable consequence of every criminal act. In addition, the law is very clear on the kind of people who can be tried and convicted before the court (Espejo, pp.156-162). There are those who are exempted from judicial proceedings; such are those who are mentally ill or have mental disorder, the minor children who are statutorily underage amongst others. In view of all these, it is important to realize that a convicted criminal is always aware of the consequences but went on to commit the crime anyway. Again, the convict must have been aware of t he potential harm and pain to the victim, the victim’s family and friends but went on to commit the crime anyway and also, the convict must have been aware of those who have committed similar offenses and actually convicted and judicially executed. So, it is justified to say or assume that a convicted individual sentenced to capital punishment had sufficient information at his or her disposal to enable him make a rational choice, though this may not always be the case. It therefore implies that in the presence of all these overwhelming information, that is also common in the public domain, the convicted individual still chose to go a head commit a capital offense; this may be referred to as crime by impunity. For this reason, it justified to judicially execute the convict irrespective of whether he or she feels the pain or his or her friends and family do. The idea here is that in case of pain felt by family members and friends of the convict, the convict failed to think of t hat before committing capital offense. In support of the forgoing argument, it is suitable that the mode of an eye for an eye is utilized. Many people who support capital punishment are highly likely to see this as cruel, but this will be very effective in terms of deterring capital offenses and protecting the general innocent public members. The issue is that the victims of capital offenders are, in most cases, innocent; and in cases where they die from heinous acts of offenders, it cannot be argued that they will ever get justice. So, judicially executing somebody who has killed does not necessarily afford the dead victim justice, but it is ensuring that as many capital offenders as possible are eliminated from the society. In terms of moral grounds, anti-capital punishment crusaders have argued that death penalty does not have moral standing; but it is important to state that if that may be true, then the activities of capital criminal offenders are also not morally acceptable in the society. Nonetheless, the question that may be asked is that of how the perpetually or dangerously immoral behavior can be eliminated from the entire society if not by judicial execution. If this question were to be answered, then the response will be none, hence leaving capital punishment as the only means (Mandery, pp.1-9). One other thing that has not been given much of attention in the debate about the appropriateness of death penalty is that every prisoner or inmate would like to escape from prison should an opportunity arises. In fact, there have been several reports indicating that many prisoners have escaped from prison premises. In particular, those on long-term jail terms are most likely to escape from prison given that there lives are at stake due to the jury’s approval. In this case, if capital offenders were to be given long jail terms, they are likely to escape and find their ways back into the society where they are likely to continue committing the very c apital offenses they had been convicted of. In order to avoid such incidences, it is important that those found guilty of capital offenses be handed death penalty and thereafter be executed within the shortest time possible (Espejo, pp. 260-167). Again it is important to recognize that laws are very dynamic and subject to change with time. In situations where a capital offender were to be jailed for life without a parole, the change of law may grant such an offender some minimum level of parole which may beat the logic of justice for the victim or close relations of justice. For instance, a capital offender may be sentenced to life in prison but after some times, the law may possible change in such a way that those who are on life imprisonment jail term may be eligible to release if they meet certain requirements like changed behavior or showing remorsefulness. The consequence of this is that this kind of statutory change may be misused by the inmates through pretending to have beha vior change but once released may again go back into committing similar capital offenses for which he or she was jailed. This imprisonment may be considered to be the most appropriate alternative to capital punishment, but laws change and people also tend to forget about the past. In this scenario, life imprisonment may be abolished and capital offenders may be allowed back into the society after a given period of imprisonment. For this reason, it serves no good the society to abolish capital punishment and this may even lead to upsurge in the number of capital offenders (Yorke 283). The cost of judicial execution has been fronted as one of the reason capital punishment should be abolished; it is explained that the process of running a case of capital punishment demands a lot of money from the state and also the family members of convicts who may be engaged in several court appeals. It is true that going through the process of issuing capital punishment is complex and requires time and financial input. However, the cost is justified; first to ensure that the due process is thorough to avoid convicting an innocent person and also to ensure that it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect is actually guilty. The processing of executing a convict requires exhaustive evidences which should be ensured are as accurate as possible since everything at that time revolves about lives; first, it revolves around the life of the suspect who may unjustifiably be executed for a crime that might attract lesser sentence and second, in case of murder, the life of the members of the society who may continue to be victims if the accused is released on account of insufficient proof. It is clear that the cost of the whole process is to ensure justice for both the suspect and the victim and potential victims (Yorke 283). Conclusion Death penalty is a capital penalty used in punishing criminals who engage in serious criminal activities that may even go far as causing real o r perceived threat of life. The death penalty has been a serious debate topic in the United States of America. The existence of execution as a form of meting punishment to serious offenders and criminals has over the past drawn mixed perceptions. It is important to note that the differences in opinions are significant reasons for which some states within the United States have abolished death penalties while some still maintain it in their statutes (Milhorn 401). As much as capital punishment is still relevant, there has been heated debate about it with a significant number of people arguing against it. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots. The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. However, it was the work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of undeniable facts that are worth acknowledging. They argue that capital punishment is cruelty against humanity, offenders might have not been sound mind at the time of commission of a capital offense and that execution puts the family of the convicted into pain and agony (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46). The most central point raised by those arguing against death punishment is the virtual certainty that there may be a miscarriage of fair dealing or honesty within the court system where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this happens. Because of this, several human rights group have petitioned various governments in the world to drop capital punishment from their statutes. Despite the opposition to it, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention. The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect. In order to avoid executing an innocent individual, anybody who faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital c rime committed. However, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. Death punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties. Capital punishment should be applied to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. Moreover, capital offenders seem to be always aware of the consequences of their criminal act before they commit it yet choose to go ahead (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57). Again, in case capital punishment is commuted to life imprisonment, there is high possibility that if the lo ng-term serving inmates escape out of prison, they will still continue to commit the very crime they were convicted of and hence place a mockery on the justice system for the victims and potential victims. Besides, the laws may change in such a manner that the capital offenders get an opportunity to go back into the society and may possibly not be cowed by the lesser consequences (Espejo, pp.156-162). Works Cited Clarke, Williams Whitt, Lauelyn. The bitter fruit of American justice: international and domestic resistance to the death penalty. New York: UPNE, 2007. Council of Europe. The death penalty: beyond abolition, Parts 42-43. New York: Council of Europe, 2004. Espejo, Roman. Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime? New York: Greenhaven Press, 2002. Gershman, Gary. Death penalty on trial: a handbook with cases, laws, and documents. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Mandery, Evan. Capital punishment: a balanced examination. New York: Jones Bartlett Learning, 2005. Milhorn, Thomas. Crime: C omputer Viruses to Twin Towers. New York: Universal-Publishers, 2004. Yorke, Jon. Against the death penalty: international initiatives and implications. New York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008 This essay on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America was written and submitted by user Sincere Schmidt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Pat Parker Associates

Pat Parker Associates Relevant FactsPat Parker was a law school graduate who started a consulting firm called Pat Parker Associates and specialized in conducting opposition research and writing reports for political candidates, primarily for the Democratic Party. This case is about how Pat Parker developed a research report for Democratic nominee, Dale Jackson for the statewide Attorney General position.Two years later, representatives of the State Academy of Trial Lawyers wanted to buy the same research document on the Republican Attorney General, Terry Paine in what Parker believed to be an effort to inoculate their candidate during an upcoming election. Parker wasn't sure how to proceed knowing that this could potentially jeopardize the political party's candidate or even worse, could be arrested for soliciting the information.The evidence presented in this case was concerned with ownership and the control of research created by one party for use by another.Legal IssuesThere are several legal issues r elated to this case.I created the graph myself with data from a Pew Re...1. Would Pat Parker violate either contract or federal copyright laws by selling the research or associated postcards to the State Academy of Trial Lawyers or anyone else who desired to purchase them?2. Could Pat Parker sell the research to the State Academy of Trial Lawyers without violating the $500 maximum funding limit under the Florida Campaign Finance Statute?3. Would Pat Parker be violating the Florida Voluntary Code of Fair Campaign Practices by selling a report generated for one party to the other party? Specifically the $500 maximum funding limit?4. If the items were resold to a third party, would Parker Associates be violating any particular codes of ethics?Legal PrinciplesThe Pat Parker Case highlights the legal and ethical issues involved in the resell of research material, which was originally contracted from a campaign analyst,

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Human Resource Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 17

Human Resource Management - Essay Example erms of cost, total business performance, culture and even corporate image if the organisation maintains effective recruitment and selection procedures. This paper describes the many advantages for contemporary organisations in maintaining quality human resources systems related to hiring employees. There are tremendous pressures being placed on the modern organisation in terms of maintaining competitive advantage and sustaining strategic superiority over competing firms in the business environment. Total business performance and the management of internal quality are two primary objectives of most members of the management hierarchy (Williams, McHugh & McHugh, 2005). The total quality management focus involves aligning all aspects of the organisation, for instance from manufacturing (if relevant) to finance, all employees are expected to conform to a well-identified model of expected business performance. Ahmad & Schroeder (2003) offer that many organisations fail to recognise the importance of total quality management (TQM) in their recruitment and selection practices, thus providing the organisation with opportunities for failure. The authors propose that in recruitment, the human resource division in today’s organisations focus strongly on prospective employee techni cal skills but focus very little on the soft skills of employees such as personality-based and behaviour-based competencies. It is suggested that soft skills are most crucial to total quality management as it is these talents which determine levels of individual motivation or whether the candidate will evolve successfully to adopt the prevailing culture and attitude in the business (Ahmad & Schroder, 2003: 542). Under a less TQM-focused organisation, technically-skilled candidates can be selected for their individual, mechanical talents and perform to job role expectations efficiently. However, today’s businesses require leaders who must adapt to project team coordination, work with a variety

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The planning system's approach to managing change in rural areas is Essay

The planning system's approach to managing change in rural areas is fundamentally flawed. Discuss - Essay Example ountry planning†, so that planning is not just a regulator of land and property uses, but is at the centre of the spatial development process, coordinating policy with implementation based on sustainable development. (Gallent et al, 2008). Some of the most important factors which have shaped the United Kingdom Planning System are: the strong ethics towards land preservation which is epitomized in the work of the Council for the Protection of Rural England, and its Scottish and Welsh counterparts. and the agriculture and breeding of livestock of the land owning class. Additionally, popular attitudes to the preservation of the countryside and the containment of urban sprawl are related to the early industrialization of the United Kingdom, the small size of the country, the long history of parliamentary government, the power of the civil service in central government, and the professions in local government (Cullingworth & Nadin, 2002). Fundamental flaws are present in the planning system’s approach to managing change in rural areas, partly because of the following reasons: the United Kingdom planning system has been highly effective in stopping development, rather than in facilitating it. There are serious weaknesses in anticipating needs, and in acquisition and allocation of land, and in integrating the planning of infrastructure with new development. The powers which the system has for such important planning actions are inadequately used because of insufficient relationship between the public planning process and the largely private development process. Though the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 envisaged the undertaking of positive planning by the public sector, this was not adopted due to lack of feasibility; and alternative mechanisms remain underdeveloped (Cullingworth & Nadin, 2002). Another shortcoming of the planning system is the most difficult issue facing any policy, that is, defining the right questions. Current United Kingdom debates are

Monday, November 18, 2019

Portfolio Report Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Portfolio Report - Research Paper Example This information is in accordance with her mother who can remember these problems. The student also is found to have problem with tutoring. Her mother is concerned that her child may have some kind of reading disability because she too had trouble learning in school, but up until now has no evidence or documentation to support this. The student has been known to have some strength is certain areas but weak in other areas. Her strong areas include expressive vocabulary, reading comprehension, oral comprehension, sentence comprehension, and listening comprehension. She is cheery and enthusiastic and loves horses and writing her own stories. She is organized and loves to draw as well as coloring. She has much interest in science. She has been found to have problems with decoding skills, oral reading, reading, writing, math, and numeracy operations. Her academic weaknesses happen despite that she hardly misses her classes. The student is learning within a contusive educational environmental. The teachers are qualified and there are a number of bright students who are ready to assist her. Besides, all the necessary resources are provided. Her general academic achievement is not good. She is relatively poor in math, numeric problems, writing, reading, science, and art. She however seem to love some of these areas. Despite her love for some of the areas or subjects, she ends up performing poorly. Her attention is poor since she makes careless mistakes in school work all the time. She also is not able to stay focused on a task for periods of time that would be expected of peers, which happens all the time. She always avoids school work or homework when possible. She also has difficulty returning to a task when focus has been lost for a short period. Besides, her assignments are ever incomplete. In the case of her selective attention, she does not seem to listen when being spoken to, she is easily distracted by objects,

Friday, November 15, 2019

Nature of the leisure industry

Nature of the leisure industry 3.0 Introduction The nature of the leisure industry is constantly changing because of new innovations and economic trends. A good example of a new innovation would be air sports such as hand gliding and bungee jumping. Many developments from previous to current products such as the mp3 player and mobiles have increased in the amount of popularity and appeal. There are many reasons why there are so many changes in the leisure industry because the leisure industry in itself is an open market in which many people can and have developed in. Leisure providers are always planning for the future and how they are going to be successful, so in order to achieve their goals they attempt to create a new innovation or innovations for (mainly) the general public. If they were to be successful then results could vary from really high success to maybe just a moderate success. A good example of a successful innovation would be the iPod range because when mp3 players were just playing songs and nothing else the iPod franchise saw the opportunity to build and grow in that certain market and so are where they are today because of their innovations. A moderate successful innovation would be a product or service which is fairly popular and is showing some signs of growth. In order to get towards the high end market they must keep changing certain products or how a service is run. Some innovations are quite articulate whilst some are quite indispensable, this shows how the leisure industry is constantly changing; they are all aiming for that one product which will give them that extra advantage over other companies. It mainly depends on the social trends and economical state or balance. The nature of the leisure industry is very unpredictable because it can change in an instance and can either gain or lose appeal to any product. 3.1 Recent innovations Mobile phones are a main source for socializing amongst most people. It is a passive pursuit because we choose to receive a call or make a call in our own free time, meaning that we usually dont have any duties to pursue and respond to. Mobile phones have had many recent changes; mobile phones have had different innovations applied towards it ever since the early 1990s, when Dr. Eric Fossum and his team achieved the first steps of realizing the modern camera phone which we have today. Another example of changes in camera phone innovation is when new technology was applied to the already advanced technology. ‘first camera phones, as successfully marketed by J-Phone in Japan, used CCD sensors and not CMOS sensors, more than 90% of camera phones sold today use CMOS image sensor technology.(Wikipedia, 2007) The most noticeable changes in innovation have to be the Apple iPhone because it has practically started a revolution in phone design single handed. There have been numerous designs to match the iPhone but always have fell short, mainly because of the iPhone software. Many competitors have copied the design, the style and even some of the icons but they could not copy or replicate the Apples operating system. It is an internet device a phone and without having buttons. ‘Iphone turnover represents 18.5% of Apples sales. Up from 5.7% the previous year 57 million iphones and iPod touches sold in the last two years (txt4ever, 2009) The advantages in which the apple iPhone have on an average mobile phone are hefty. Such as, the iPhone includes stock chart, calendar, compass, maps, YouTube, weather, voice memos, iPod, world clocks, iTunes, notes, camera and App store as a normal default setting. Meaning that other mobiles can only include half of what the iPhone has to offer. In addition to revolutionizing phone designs the iPhone has already created a huge market for accessories, cases, docks, applications and much more. With its vast range and variety of applications it can be used by almost anyone. It has free wireless internet, video recording, safari, and mail. Many apps are based on general and social needs but can be utilized for active, passive and home based pursuits. For example the iphone have produced numerous cooking apps and timers to aid anyone who may need assistance in cooking. The iphone also offers a wide variety of games where you can even play online with other player from around the world. T his would go under as a home based leisure. The iphone isnt just for socializing and low energy activities it can also perform various high energy activities such as the Nike+ iPod app system. It can apparently time your goals, measure the distance travelled, workout how much calories were burnt and fix a timetable for your work out. It is described as a personal trainer without a personal trainer. Apple iPhone shows the importance of new innovations in technology. Many leisure facilities can have a huge advantage in terms of benefit and profit. If recreation facilities have a Wi-Fi zone such as in a cafe or a store than many iPhone and laptop users can connect directly with minimum trouble. The leisure facility would see increase in participation and social commuters in the facilities. Another example of recent innovations is the Wii Fit from the Nintendo franchise. It has revolutionised what we usually do in our homes, or even in recreational facilities. Its objective is to combine fun and fitness into one product; it can apparently change how you exercise, how you balance and even how you move. This new technology has changed the popularity and participation rates in local recreational facilities, for example yoga and fitness classes would see a distinctive decrease in participants most probably because of the new innovations produced. The advantages of owning one of these new innovations such as the Wii Fit can produce more advanced accurate readings of progress, it can estimate how many calories you might have put on or burned, no membership costs, uses a user interface system, wireless, Wii fit has a variety of games and exercise in which you can participate in and is generally easy to use. ‘The most popular sports/physical activities in NSW were: Walking (other than bushwalking) Aerobics/fitness Swimming Tennis Cycling Golf Running Bushwalking Soccer (outdoor) Yoga'(Government, 2009) Participation rates in sports/physical activities amongst different age groups ‘Participation decreases with age: 15 24 years 94.3% 25 34 years 85.2% 35 44 years 85.3% 45 54 years 80.4% 55 64 years 83.4% 65 years and over 70.7%'(Government, Participation in exercise, 2009) 3.2 Technology Reading books in our spare time used to be one of our leisure pursuits whether home-based or public. Recent innovations have lead normal reading to new technological heights. One example is the kindle where people can read their favourite books with just a few push of the buttons. The Kindle has the potential to store up to more than 300,000 books and can easily be accessed. The Kindle has many advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantages are: Its very useful for short and long range trips You can send any files via the kindle email Its portable and light You can read almost any book at any time You can get an on-line dictionary The disadvantages are: It has limited research abilities No internet connectivity abroad Limited memory expansion Battery is quite heavy Could be vulnerable to break Doesnt have the real feel of book (depends on personal tastes) There are many other advantages and disadvantages but what makes this product a success is because of its unique qualities. It has already shown progress in its growth in the USA, UK and Europe. The chart shows the increase in kindle users in a course of a month. (Steve, 2009) Kindle has created a new technological innovation where they relate to many people across the world. They have already partnered up with the apple in building a new Kindle app for the iPhone and iTunes. ‘On March 3, 2009, launched an application entitled Kindle for iPhone in the App Store for iPhone and iPod Touch owners to read Kindle content.'(Wikipedia, 2009 ) This image shows the Kindle Wi-Fi range and coverage. This shows that the Amazon kindle still has many more innovations impending ahead. (Switch31, 2009) There are other new technologies where it is mainly based on your leisure pursuits. Battlefield sports are a new innovation in combat entertainment. It uses digital technology called S.A.T.R which stands for small arms transmitter receiver. It has already had a convention in which it was very successful and has made many breakthroughs in the recent leisure attractions. S.A.T.R is the worlds first real time hit feedback which creates an impelling realistic like in game statistics. It also doesnt need a central computer system. Battlefield sports are build system where gamers can participate in combat missions for their measurable entertainment. Millions of games have been played across 34 countries where they all experienced unique battle missions. Battlefield sports have already won numerous awards such as the member of the year (2007) of the Australian technology showcase. Battlefield sports are dedicated to 100% quality in service, design and manufacturing. Battlefield sports are live meaning everything is in real time and active. It is also very versatile meaning it can be played indoors and outdoors. It offers exciting, satisfying and potentially profitable business opportunities on the planet. It isnt the same as regular gaming, where it is mainly home-based and less active. They also offer partnerships meaning they are still growing and are leading in new innovations in numerous ways (new systems, S.A.T.R, infra red lasers, inflatables etc). Battlefield sports have created a new innovation in which many people can benefit it greatly. It is mainly active and offers many health benefits and a new market in which businesses can evolve and excel. ‘The experts at Battlefield Sportsâ„ ¢ have created a unique business platform for anyone who wants to take advantage of business opportunities created by the dramatic cultural shifts in todays computer game environment'(Sports, 2009). â€Å"S*A*T*R is a huge step forward in combat entertainment,† explained Paul Diamond, UK Agent for Battlefield Sports. â€Å"Battlefield Sports spent two years developing this latest innovation in the leisure industry and now will showcase this breakthrough at Leisure Industry Week† (LIW, 2009) 3.3 Influences of the media The media has a large impact in influencing change, appeal and popularity of leisure activities because the media itself is very broad and diverse matter, meaning it can affect large amounts people across almost any region of any country.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Internet Laws :: essays research papers

Crime and the Criminal Internet Laws Cyber Space Law Right now there is a very interesting war being waged in the court rooms across America. It is a battle for the rights of citizens on the Internet. The Internet is a fairly new medium gaining wide popularity in 1994. Because of its incredible growth in popularity in a very short amount of time it has been hard to regulate. The first act to come out regarding the Internet and Freedom of Speech was PL 99-508 the Electronic Communications and Privacy Act of 1986 . This act consisted of two parts, title I and title II. Title I - Interception of Communications and Related Matters. Basically takes the existing laws and updates them to include computers. Where before it was illegal to intercept private telephone calls, it now says it is illegal to intercept private computer transmissions. It also includes a provision to make it legal to intercept public radio transmissions like it is with public radio programs. It also allows Internet Service Providers to keep a log of who c alled and their activity on-line to protect themselves. Title II - Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access. This provision adds sections to Title 18 of the United States Code (USC). In section 2701 - Unlawful Access to Stored Communications; it makes it a federal offense to hack into a computer system. Actually what it says is that it is not illegal to gain access but once you do gain access, by mistake or intention, it is illegal to continue to access the computer system. This crime is punishable by $5000 or up to six months in jail. Section 2703 of USC Title 18 is the section that instructs Internet Service Providers to keep a back-up record of your activities on-line with a court order from a government entity. Then after the government notifies the individual in question, the material is either used by the agency or is destroyed. Probably the biggest battle yet over the first amendment rights so far has been the Communications Decency Act or CD A. In March 1995 Senator Jim Exon introduces legislation to criminalize online publication of any material deemed "obscene, lascivious, filthy or indecent." This legislation was attached to a larger and popular Telecommunications Reform Bill. The Senate and the House voted to approve the Telecommunications Reform Bill in February 1996.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Patrick Platt

HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Patient Name: Patrick Platt Patient ID: 771033 Room No: 560 Date of Admission: 08/30/—- Admitting Physician: William Payne, MD Admitting Diagnosis: Rule out fracture of left arm. CHIEF COMPLAINT: Pain and swelling, left upper arm. HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: The patient is an elderly male, who fell four days prior to admission. He noted immediate pain and swelling in the area just above his left elbow. He presented to the emergency room for treatment. PAST HISTORY: Past illnesses include whooping cough as a child. Tonsillectomy in the past. No known allergies to medications. FAMILY HISTORY: No hereditary disorders noted. Mother and father are deceased. Two brothers are alive and well. One sister has adult-onset diabetes mellitus. SOCIAL HISTORY: The patient is married and has two children. His wife does not work outside the home. (No mention of tobacco or alcohol use). PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL: The patient is a well-developed, well-nourished male who appears to be in moderate distress with pain and swelling in the upper left arm. Vital signs: Blood pressure 140/90, temperature 98. 3 degrees Fahrenheit, pulse 97, respiration 18. HEENT: Head normal, no lesions, Eyes, arcus senilis, both eyes. Ears, impacted cerumen, left ear. Nose, clear. Mouth, dentures fit well, no lesions. NECK: Normal range of motion in all directions. (Continued) HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Patient Name: Patrick Platt Patient ID: 771033 Date of Admission: 08/30/—- Page 2 INTEGUMENTARY: Psoriatic lesion, right thigh, approximately 1 mm in diameter. CHEST: Clear breath sounds bilaterally. No rales or rhonchi noted. HEART: Normal sinus rhythm. There is a holosystolic murmur. No friction rubs noted. ABDOMEN: Normal bowel sounds. Liver, kidneys, and spleen are normal to palpation. GENITALIA: Tests normally descended bilaterally. RECTAL: Prostate 2+ and benign. EXTREMITIES: Pain and swelling noted above the left elbow, other upper extremities normal. No cyanosis or clubbing. The legs demonstrate 2+ pitting edema to the knees. NEUROLOGIC: Crainial nerves II through XII intact, memory intact, sensation intact to light touch. ASSESSMENT AND PLAN: The patient was sent for plain film of the left arm, which revealed a fracture of the left humerus. The fracture was reduced in the emergency room. X-ray revealed anatomic alignment. He was released to home with a prescription for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and instructions to elevate his arm. He will follow up in the office in three days. PROGNOSIS: Good. _________________________ William Payne, MD WM:R D:08/30/—- T:09/01/—-

Friday, November 8, 2019

Lobbying essayEssay Writing Service

Lobbying essayEssay Writing Service Lobbying essay Lobbying essayThe introduction of health care reform is essential for the improvement of health care services and making health services available to citizens. In this regard, the lobbying of health care reform is essential for the improvement of health care services and successful completion of the reform. The current criticism of the health care reform can raise a strong opposition that will undermine the successful implementation of the reform, while lobbying will help to complete the reform successfully and bring consistent changes to the contemporary health care system of the US making it available to all citizens.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In actuality, the health care reform will bring considerable changes in the health care system of the US because the current situation in the national health care system fails to provide health care services for all citizens. Even though the quality of health care services and their availability is unequal and there are wide gaps between health care services’ available to citizens and the quality of health care services. To put it more precisely, high quality of health care services are available to the rich, whereas the poor have limited or no access to basic health care services and even when they receive health care services, they are of the low quality.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Therefore, the health care reform will help to implement changes that can change the situation for better. To put it more precisely, the health care reform will make health care services more available to the public and close quality gaps between the rich and the poor. The point of the health care reform is to make health services available to all citizens. However, the reform is costly that makes lobbying essential.