Friday, May 31, 2019
Dune     The book Dune has a science-fiction story derivation that associates two majorthemes frequently in the book. The title and the setting of the book are usedto establish the bleakness and isolation of the planet Arrakis. The plot and closure bring together the multiple factions including the emperor and thetwo major houses for control of the spice production.The title of the book Dune, plays a major part of the story. The planet ofArrakis where intimately of the novel takes place, is a desolate, isolated spot in the humans which isnt valuable for anything, but the spice. The people on theplanet have it hard because of the gigantic mainstay dunes and the indigenous sandworms which live under the sand. The planet has no source of water on it exceptthat of underground, which is very hard to come by. As you sess see, "Water isprecious there." (pg. 30)The plot of this science-fiction story deals almost entirely of the twomajor houses that at this ti me are sworn to destroy each some other and the emperor.The two major houses want control of the spice on the planet of Arrakis whichallows anyone who has it to fold space. Folding space means traveling anywherein the universe without actually having to move. The House of Attreides getsdestroyed by the House of Harkonnens in the fight over the spice. But on theplanet of Arrakis, the local people of that world cognize as Fremen had had aprophecy that one day a savior would come and make peace where there was war onthe planet of Arrakis. The dukes tidings of the House of Attreides escaped duringthe fight for the planet and crashed landed on the dunes where the Fremen lived.The dukes son, Paul, became their leader because of his great knowledge. Helearned to control the giant sand worms and use them to his sustain advantage. TheFremen were determined to get rid of all the Harkonnens that ruled the world for
Thursday, May 30, 2019
The Genre of The Great Gatsby   If you want to find out, into which literary corner F. Scott Fitzgeralds masterpiece, the Great Gatsby, belongs, youve got to put forward a look at two main genres of novel-writing, the so-called novel of politeness on the one hand and the romance on the other. The novel of manners gives, using most of the time a rather satirical tone, a sharp portrayal of the actual life as it really is and also of the loving behaviour and attitudes that are closely related with it. This type of novel concentrates on people of a certain class, time and place are clearly defined. The mortal attitudes of those people, their inner desires, get into conflict with the more conventional values, which are defined by the society they live in. The result is, that the protagonist has the problem of combining himself and his desires with the rules (the manners) of society, that he himself as a part of this society helped to establish, involuntarily. Examples for t his special kind of novel are creations of authors like Henry Fielding and Jane Austen. On the other hand in that location is the romance, non aiming at a detailed description of life, only wanting to show it as it is imaginatively seen. The romance concentrates on the inner aspects of human nature, it is not concerned with ordinary events. It is difficult to decide to which literary type the Great Gatsby belongs. It is possible to ask it as a novel of manners for it presents life and zephyr of the Roaring Twenties in America, the Jazz Age, marked by prohibition, the organised crime, the new woman as well as the wealthy upper-class and their disregard in most affairs. Fitzgerald is also using a satirical and comic tone most of the time. But the book could as well be read as a romance. This seems to be even more appropriate for the book is concerned with the portrayal of a mans idealism in all its glory but as well in all its unreality and unworldliness. Gatsby is presented a s a mysterious figure, fitting well within the fantasy and magic of his naive dream. He is Prince Charming, the gallant knight, trying to get his Princess in white, its a perfect example for a sad and tragic fairy-tale. While writing the Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald got influenced by some(prenominal) other books, such as The Decline of the West by Oswald Spengler, published 1918-1922, which is portraying the Western civilisation as being in a enjoin of decay.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
In the novel Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck brings out the themes of Lonliness and companionship, and strengths and weaknesses through the actions, and quotations of the characters. badinage and foreshadowing play a large gazump on how the story ends. Lennie and his habit of killing things not on purpose, but he is a dupe of his own strength. George trying to pretend that his feelings for Lennie mean nothing. The entire novel is repetitive in themes and expressed views. Loneliness and Companionship atomic number 18 one of the many themes that are conveyed in the novel Of Mice and Men, By John Steinbeck. Many of the characters admit to suffering from loneliness within the texts. George sets the tone for these confessions early in the novel when he reminds Lennie that the spiritedness of living on a ranch is among the loneliest of lives. However Lennie, who is mentally disabled holds the idea that living on a farm very high. "Tending the rabbits" is what Lennie calls it. ofttimes when Lennie is seaking encouragement he askes George to tell him how its going to be. Men like George who migrate from farm to farm rarely have anyone to look to for companionship and protection. George obviously cares a lot for lennie, but is too stubborn to admit to it. The feeling of being shipped from place to place leaves George feeling alone and abandoned. Strengths and Weaknesses play a huge roll within the story. Steinbeck explores different types of strength and weakness throughout the novel. As the novel begins, Steinbeck shows how Lennie possesses physical strength beyond his control, as when he cannot help killing the mouse. bulky physical strength is valuable in George and Lennies circumstances. Curley, as a symbol of authority on the ranch and a champion boxer, makes this clear immediately by using his brutish strength and violent temper to intimidate those who look down on him. Lennie means no harm at all. The reason wherefore George and Lennie had to leave in the beginning of the novel was because it was believed that Lennie attempted to rape a woman there. Rape was not the case at all, when Lennie expressed his love for the smirch of soft things, such as a dress or a mouse, this panicked the woman causing a chain reaction, and causing Lennie panic also. When Lennie minutely kills the mouse, it foreshadows the future of Lennie and Curleys wife.
Monty Python and the Holy GrailIn Monty Python and the Holy Grail, logic is used in an unfamiliar with(predicate) way. This logic does not deal with the nature of life, plainly deals with the more complex forms of logic that require the filling of blanks to make things work out. Although, for the most part genuine things did not make sense, but yet they did express logic. They used environmental attributes to make sense of the complexities they had.The first application of logic found in the icon was in the first scene with the use of coconuts. They argued about how King Arthur had coconuts here in a moderate climate while coconuts only grow in tropical climates. King Arthurs explanation for this was that a swallow brought it back when migrating. The peasant said that is impossible because a little bird cannot carry a coconut while it migrates. Hence with no other possibilities the peasant had concluded that it is impossible to have a coconut in England, which had been brought b ack, from a tropical region from a small migrating bird. This is a perfect example of how the movie breaks down logic and uses the settings environmental attributes and resources. Another example of this uncouth logic is seen with the towns peoples belief of the woman being a witch. The towns people said that she shall be burned for being a witch, but the knight, in his use of logic says that if she is a witch, and must be burned accordingly she is made of wood. The knight goes on to say that if she is made of wood then she must float, and that if she floats she must be the akin weight as a duck. So they weigh her and from the magic of movies she weighs the same as the duck, concluding that she is a witch. This shows the erroneous logic that is being used in the movie, as well as the use of environment to draw a basis for conclusion. From this they arrive at the same conclusion they had in the beginning, that being that the women was a witch.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Asian American Literature Asian Americans seem to be fighting an unwinnable battle when it comes to the content of their writing. Writers are criticized by whites for speaking out against discrimination, and by their fellow Asian Americans for contributing to the stereotypes through their silence. I swear that Asian Americans should include politics in their writing as they so choose, but should not feel obligated to do so, as Frank elevate suggests.For those Asian Americans who make known their discontent with the injustice and discrimination that they feel, in the white culture, this translates to attacking American superiority and initiating insecurities. For Mura, a writer who dared to question why an Asian American was not allowed to audition for an Asian American role, his punishment was the ostracism and demonization that ensued. In essence, he was shunned (Hongo 4) by the white people who could not believe that he would attack their superior American ways. According to writers such as Frank bring up and the rest of the Aiiieeeee group, the Americans have dictated Asian culture and created a perception as nice and quiet (Chin 1972, 18), mamas boys and crybabies without a man in all the males. (Chin 1972, 24). This has become the belief of the proceeding generations of Asian Americans and then manifested these stereotypes. Those authors who contest these American made stereotypes are said to betray the American culture and white power around them, and to be rocking the boat in a seemingly decent living situation. It is as though Asian Americans are succombing to the thought that America is the only place to be and that they should be grateful to become here.On the new(prenominal) hand, keeping silent due to pressures from the white population means being shunned by the members of the Asian American population. I disagree with Chins ascertation that years of apparent silence have made us accomplices to the makers of stereotypes (Chin 1991, xxx ix). I agree with Hongos argument that Chin viewpoint limits artistic emancipation (Hongo 4). Declaring that those writers who do not argue stereotypes of the good, loyal, and feminine Chinese man or the submissive female, are in any way contributing to or disagreeing with them is ridiculous. Chins opinion that politics should be included in some aspect of every Asian American piece eliminates choice from writing topics for other writers. Authors are the voices of the people (whichever people they choose to represent) and should not be criticized for choosing to discuss issues other than those that Chin deems necessary.
Asian American Literature Asian Americans seem to be fighting an unwinnable battle when it comes to the content of their composition. Writers be criticized by whites for speaking out against discrimination, and by their fellow Asian Americans for contributing to the stereotypes through their inhibit. I believe that Asian Americans should include politics in their writing as they so learn, but should not feel obligated to do so, as Frank Chin suggests.For those Asian Americans who make known their discontent with the hurt and discrimination that they feel, in the white culture, this translates to attacking American superiority and initiating insecurities. For Mura, a writer who d bed to question why an Asian American was not allowed to audition for an Asian American role, his punishment was the ostracism and demonization that ensued. In essence, he was shunned (Hongo 4) by the white people who could not believe that he would attack their superior American ways. According t o writers such as Frank Chin and the rest of the Aiiieeeee group, the Americans have dictated Asian culture and created a perception as nice and good-tempered (Chin 1972, 18), mamas boys and crybabies without a man in all the males. (Chin 1972, 24). This has become the belief of the proceeding generations of Asian Americans and therefore manifested these stereotypes. Those authors who contest these American made stereotypes are said to betray the American culture and white power around them, and to be rocking the boat in a seemingly decent living situation. It is as though Asian Americans are succombing to the thought that America is the only place to be and that they should be grateful to live here.On the other hand, keeping soundless due to pressures from the white population means being shunned by the members of the Asian American population. I disagree with Chins ascertation that years of apparent silence have made us accomplices to the makers of stereotypes (Chin 1991, xxxix) . I agree with Hongos argument that Chin viewpoint limits artistic freedom (Hongo 4). Declaring that those writers who do not argue stereotypes of the good, loyal, and maidenly Chinese man or the submissive female, are in any way contributing to or disagreeing with them is ridiculous. Chins opinion that politics should be included in some aspect of every Asian American piece eliminates choice from writing topics for other writers. Authors are the voices of the people (whichever people they choose to represent) and should not be criticized for choosing to discuss issues other than those that Chin deems necessary.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Describe the essential element to be a roaring monetary contriver in Hong Kong and China. Explain the challenges of practicing ethical pecuniary provision in Hong Kong and China. Successful financial planning Successful financial planning Establishing religioning relationships with clients Establishing trusting relationships with clients toilsome reputation Strong reputation Professional and ethical behavior Professional and ethical behavior Strong financial planning knowledge Strong financial planning knowledge Strong interpersonal skills Strong interpersonal skillsFinancial planning has become much to a greater extent important over the decade in Hong Kong and China. some graduates and other people with professional financial planning knowledge engage into the field of financial planning. Being a successful financial planner, certain conditions should be follow uped to respond the demand of clients and general public. Figure1 Conditions of successful financial plannin g As figure1 stated, a successful financial planner should establish trusting relationships with their clients which get hold of strong reputation of those financial planners.There are three main elements to construct the strong reputation to the clients, including strong financial planning knowledge, strong interpersonal skills and professional and ethical behavior. Financial planners are required to have the all-round knowledge. They are expected to evaluate all aspects of the clients financial of necessity including consumption, income and wealth analysis, insurance, retirement life, task and estate planning. They should provide valuate-added services to fulfill the needs of the clients accordingly. Also, there are some microeconomic and acroeconomic factors would affect the performance of the investment portfolio. A professional financial planner should have related knowledge for clients best interest. In Hong Kong, the financial market is well-developed . It is easy to find a large range of financial products to invest. plenteousness of choices imply that financial planners should understand the nature of each product to suit the clients need. To increase public confidence in the financial planning, more banks and insurance companies require their staff to take the CFP examination.As for China, Chinese government has opened the financial market over the years which lead to the changes of the Chinese circumstance frequently. So financial planners in China are required to receive related education to enhance the public confident on financial planning. Taking the ideal of China taxation system, there were several changes in tax incentive for foreign business and individual income tax. Financial planners in China should aware these changes and metamorphose their tax planning quickly for their clients.Interpersonal skills are essential to financial planners. Because they have to collect the data from their clients to make recommendations to their client s. When collecting data from their clients, financial planners should show their fair play and competence to convince the clients. It can be better to set the financial goal for their clients. Chinese people would not disclose their private information to the curious easily. It hampers financial planners to help their clients to operate their financial goals.Financial planners who serve for Chinese people should use their interpersonal skills to get close with their clients and collect more information. Many successful salespeople suggest making friend with the customers and clients. Caring with clients needs help financial planners to make a close relationship with their clients. For example, one youngster policy in China makes the citizens to concern more about their retirement life. A financial planner can top clients trust by sharing their knowledge on retirement planning and making suggestions.Professional and ethical behavior is the third important element for financial p lanners to gain reputation. Nowadays, more people concern about the ethical practice in financial sector, especially after the financial tsunami. Integrity can build trust with the clients and gain reputation. CFP Board set the Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibility which includes several principles integrity, objectivity, competence, fairness, confidentiality, professionalism and diligence. Without these principles, a financial planner cannot establish a well relationship with their clients.To fulfill these three elements, a financial planner can gain good reputation among their clients and establish trusting relationships with them which make him or her to be a successful financial planner. CFP mark is the qualification recognized by Financial Planning Standards Board (FPSB). A financial planner needs to fulfill certain conditions education, examination, finger and ethics. Every financial planner would face ethical challenges when practicing financial planning. There ar e some examples for challenges of practicing ethical financial planning in Hong Kong and China.There are building complex financial products in Hong Kong and China. It is hard to compare these new and complex products with the traditional one. The aim of financing planning is to provide professional services to suit the needs of their clients. Ethical practice means doing the right thing. A structured product can generate higher cash flow than treasury bonds in the bloom of youth economic. However, it incurs higher risk for the clients investment at the time. For the financial planner, it is difficult to say for certain that those new and complex products are better than the tradition investment tools.And it makes the decision-making to become harder. Another ethical challenge is the method of compensation. In US, most financial planners are compensated via a combination of fees and commissions. Comparing with the financial planners in Hong Kong and China, many of them are compens ated by commission and low basic salary. Commission is a motivation which drives financial planners to maximize the asset value of their clients. Higher growth rate of the asset value implies higher commission that planners can earn. However, commission-based compensation would bias financial planners to perform a risky portfolio.Instead of concerning clients interest, planners would pursue his or her own benefit for survival. Because the basic salary might not be enough for living. In Hong Kong and China, financial planners may face the pressure from their employers or supervisors. They have to meet the monthly quota of some recommended products. In general, they receive high commission by selling these products. Different from the salespeople, financial planners are advising their financial planning to their clients but not selling it. Those recommended products may not be suitable for their clients situation and needs.It goes against the principle that a financial planner should put clients interest in the first priority. In conclusion, financial planners have to deal with many ethical dilemmas in reality. When a professional financial planner is approach the difficulty at work, he or she can still put their clients interest on first and avoid the trap from those wrong practices. In the future, it is expected that the field of financial planning will grow extensively in Hong Kong and China. And there will be more professional financial planners to engage into this field.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Wilson is more affected by Myrtles death than he lets on. Therefore, I wrote this eulogy as Wilson for Myrtle to show the depth and complexity of their relationship. I tried to show Willows feelings for Myrtle, rather than a spiritless man as depicted with the things he did for Myrtle. Including the things Myrtle did for Wilson shows his appreciation and have it off for her. Due to the lack of information In the novel, some of the content was crafted based on scenes In the novel and from my thoughts of their relationship.By Including the buddy-buddy relationship between the couple, It every last(predicate)ows the readers to better understand why Wilson killed Gatsby and himself. The vocabulary used is simple, as Wilson was uneducated. The use of constant repetition and similar sentence structure shows that Wilson was a simple man and that he did not grorchard apple tree how to express himself clearly. It also emphasizes on the extent of his love and guilt. Short sentences are us ed to depict Willows unresisting and shy nature. There is a use of dramatic irony by showing how happy Wilson was when Myrtle pass the weekend with her friends, and when she wore nice dresses she bought tit her savings.Wilson is absorbed about the affair, un standardised the audience. This shows how the American Dream Is flawed. Although Wilson worked hard and shower Myrtle with love, Myrtle still chose Tom. It also shows how materialistic people were back then. Myrtle chose Wilson and on his appearance and now fatalitys to be with Tom for his wealth. This eulogy is written in the first person perspective to show intimacy between the two. so mavenr of using a second person perspective to describe Myrtle, It shows Willows deep attachment to his dead wife. 300 words) Good morning, I am George Wilson, Myrtles husband. I would like to start off by thanking every single one of you for your presence today. Myrtle would be happy If she were still here. Myrtle, you are the love of my life. You entered my life on a fateful Friday 15 years ago, wearing a pink-laced dress, topped with a cream hat. You danced with such beauty, elegance and grace. However it wasnt your beauty that set you aside from the others. It was your bubbly and outgoing personality, your vitality that caught my eye.I knew that you were the one, I knew that I cute to be yours, I knew that we courage to take the first step to talk to you. I wanted to look my best for you, I wanted you to notice me, I wanted you to like me. I worked very hard day and night at the garage. I was hoping to get a decent piece of clothing. The day of the gathering drew closer and closer. I still had yet to get enough money for a suit. I asked God continuously for help, and He answered my prayer. I was able to borrow a suit from a customer after begging him for it. The quality of the silk radio link I bought came with a hefty price, but it was all value it.I neer once regretted all the hard work put in to get that suit, because it brought me a step closer to you, y dear. I mark the rejoice on your face, that unspeakable Joy, when I proposed. I remember how your face turned crimson. I remember the 20 graceful steps you took down the aisle, towards me. You wore a hand crafted pristine white gown, fitted with laces and frills. It was exactly the one you told me about, the one you dreamed of since young. I remember how my substance skipped a beat when you stood beside me. I remember how your hands were gently holding on to mine. At that moment, I Just wanted to be yours.Seeing that pure Joy in your eyes when we were pronounced husband and fife was worth so much more than all the extra hours spent working, all the meals forgone, all the sweat and caudex shed to make our wedding perfect. Nothing mattered more to me than you, Myrtle. I love you. Working at the gas station isnt an easy Job, but all was worth it. You eternally told me I work too much as compared to what I earned. But I know the l ittle that I earn can one day bring you happiness. I know you want to get out of this place. I want to be the one leaving with you. Myrtle, you evermore looked forward to the weekends spent with your friends.Seeing oh smiling from ear to ear when you return brings me so much Joy. It means the world to see you happy. Although your friends have rich husbands and live in big houses, you never uttered a word of complaint. You never looked down on me. You never compared me to the others. You never leave my side. thank you for loving me. Thank you for staying by my side. Thank you for universe happy, so I would be happy too. I love you. Myrtle, you bring color to my dull life. You always wear colorful dresses. You always doll yourself up. You always try to look your best for me. I know you are aware hat I dont earn much.I know you never once asked me for money. I know you have always used your savings to get yourself what you want. You always think of me. You always share the burden wit h me. You always put my needs above yours. Thank you, my dear, for being so selfless. I wish I could be more like you. The last words you said were asking me to beat you. You are the apple of my eye, you are a precious gem to a peasant like me. Why would I want to hurt you? I love you, my coward. Yes, I am a coward. But thats because I Just wanted to be yours, to listen to what you say, to obey your every command. Myrtle, I love you.I always question myself why did you lead me, I am poor, I am not that good looking, I am useless. Despite all my shortcomings, you loved me Just the way I am, and you gave me all that I needed and wanted. I want to earn more. I want you to see the world. I want to spend more time with you. I want to shower you with love. I failed to do so. Now, it is too late. Im sorry for not showing my love Just like how you showed yours. Im sorry for not giving you the life you always wanted. Im sorry for not showering you with clothes. Im sorry for all the sufferin g you had to go through.Im sorry for being overprotective at times. Im sorry for being a coward. Im sorry dear, Im sorry, and Ill love you, for all eternity. Myrtle is not perfect, but I love her Just the way she is. She accepted me for who I am and forgave me for all my faults, and I will do the same. To all those Judging onlookers, Myrtle does not deserve to be criticized, for she is perfect to me, and that is all she needs to be. Myrtle dear, your imperfections are what I love most about you, and it is your imperfections that I will miss most. Goodbye and take care, my dear. I will always love you.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
The weaknesses of Russia during World state of war One were precise important in explaining the parachute of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Although their were in alike(p) manner other factors that contri thated to the start of the Revolution in 1917 like the role of czar and the problems in Petrograd. Russia had many weaknesses during WW1 both at home at and the count line which could have helped capture the Revolution in 1917. Russia was unable to beat Japan due to many weaknesses at the front line.The soldiers werent given any proper training and their weapons were mostly out of date and even at one point their was all one gun betwixt trey soldiers. Their was also very spoilt transport in Russia at the sentence which meant some soldiers couldnt be taken to the front because their was train to take them their and they would entirely be stuck in the train station. Having wondering(a) transport also meant that victuals was unable to get to the soldiers at the front w hich caused many to starve.The food for the soldiers and the tidy sum hardlyt home was delivered to a city Archangel but because their werent any trains to deliver the food to them, it just stayed in Archangel. Also, their were many casualties during the war but due to the bad transport medical supplies like medicines and nurses were unable to be taken to the front to treat the wounded. The war gave soldiers the opportunity to communicate with each other and share their ideas, it also gave them experience with weapons and training which they were able to use in the revolution. Their were also many problems at home during WW1.Russia had a population of hundred and five million during WW1 and only three and a half million were industrial workers, this is because most of them had gone of to fight in the war but with a lack of industrial workers it meant that the descend of weapons being do would decrease and by three months into the war the amount of weapons being made had fallen by fifty percent. During the war because their was not sufficient tribe to run the factories Peasants were used to work in the factories, but with the peasants working in the factories this meant the land being used to make food fell by twenty percent.This made batch really wrathful because of the shortage of food. Also the food prices went up and during 1914 and 1917 food prices had increased five times, this made people angry because their wages werent being increased and only less then ten percent of workers were receiving minimum wage. With the lack of food and the food prices being increased made many people angry enough to decide to go on strikes. Many strikes occurred and in 1914 their were altogether sixty-eight strikes and in January and February of 1917 one thousand three hundred and thirty strikes occurred. These strikes showed that people wanted change.Many people though loved czar at the beginning of the war because it made them feel patriotic towards their countr y and they were willing to support him because they wanted to win the war. Industrial reform was some other factor that could have helped cause the Revolution of 1917. In the 1890s Russia started to industrialise and this order was known as The Great Spurt. A man called Sergi Witte wanted to modernise Russia and move everyone to the cities, this was a bad move because 80% of Russias population at the time were peasants, and in 1881 only 928,000 people were victuals in St Petersburg.By 1914 the population of St Petersburg had increased to 2,217,000 this caused a lot of problems. It caused social unrest, their were on trade union or legal representation and bad living conditions because the city was so crowded. It also caused food shortages because their werent as many peasants producing food and their were too many people living in the town it was hard to supply food for them all. Having so many people living in an everywherecrowded city was a bad move because people were able to talk to each other and plan and organise a revolution.Sergi Witte managed to build a Trans-Siberian rail bearing, but although it was a step in industrialising Russia it was a execrable one. The Railway only went form east to west, this was the reason why soldiers were unable to get to the front line and fight and it was also the reason why food supplies werent being delivered to places in the north and south of Russia and to the soldiers. The role of tzar also helped in causing the Revolution of 1917. Although Tsar was liked at the beginning of WW1 but by the end of the war he was very disliked by many people.He believed in Romanov tradition and believed that he ruled through presage right, which meant he believed he was chosen by god and refused to embrace any type of change. One of the things he believed and lived by was Russification, he wanted to make Russia more than Russian and by doing this he treated Ukrainians badly, prosecuted Jews because he felt that they werent rea l Russians and caused huge discrimination. He also called peasants the dark masses. A man called Pobedonostsev tutored Nicholas II and his fuck off Alexander III which allowed him to have a huge influence over the both of them.Pobedonostsev was the one who told them to give no granting immunity and because of the huge influence Pobedononstsev had over Nicholas and his father that is what Nicholas and his father did, they gave no freedom. Tsars personal feelings and personality was also a reason that could have helped cause the Revolution of 1917. He was known to be very stubborn and impatient and dis take holdd with any change. He had bad judgement in the appointment and dismissal of ministers and he also refused to appoint a government which had the effrontery of the public during the war which caused a lot of people to turn against him.Rasputin was also a cause of opposition towards Tsar. Tsars choice of having Rasputin as an adviser was a bad move this was because the Wealth Influential Court Ministers hated Rasputin and his powers and started to turn against Tsar because of Rasputin. Also in 1917 Tsar sacked his uncle and became commander of chief of the whole army. This was the worst thing Tsar could have done because it meant that he would get the blame from people when Russia gets defeated in wars, it also meant that he was away from home a lot.With Tsar being away from home a lot it allowed opposition to grow and problems to occur like the strikes by workers and peasants. Agrarian reform was also another factor that could have helped cause the Revolution in 1917. A man called Stolypin who was a big supporter of Tsar wanted to change the way peasants were commonwealth in Russia. He believed in suppression first, and then, and only then reform, he wanted to work out how to feed the growing population of Russia.Peasants were very materialistic and the form of farming they did was called strip farming which was were they farm for their needs no one elses, but Stolypin wanted to get the peasants to farm for the big cities like St Petersburg and Moscow. The way in which he went in trying to make these changes was by terrorising them. All though Stolypin tried by 1914 most peasants were still strip farming which meant that people in St Petersburg and Moscow still didnt have enough for food for their growing population which got people in the cities angry.Also because 80% of the population of Russia were peasants, by terrorising them like Stolypin did a lot of them would have turned away from supporting Tsar because Stolypin was such a big supporter of Tsar. The failure to meet needs afterwards 1905 Revolution in the October manifesto was also another factor that could have caused the Revolution on 1917. Russia was very surprised by their defeat from the Russo-Japanese war and that it self would have made people want to revolt.After the 1905 Revolution, which didnt work because their was no actual leader, Tsar had to make the pe ople happy so he sign-language(a) the October Manifesto which created the Duma, the Russian parliament. The Duma was split into two the choose Duma and the State Council. The State council was appointed by Tsar which initially gave them more power over the Elected Duma. Although Tsar allowed the Duma which looked like he was given more freedom to the Russian people he was still the one who was able to control the Duma. If he didnt agree with any of the ideas of the Dumas he was able to dissolve it.The first Duma only lasted from 1st May to July 1906, the second one lasted form adjoin to June 1907 and was dissolved because the Duma demanded rights and didnt like Stolypins ideas but Tsar did. The reason Tsar kept the Duma though was because although it looked like he was given people more freedom he wasnt and it was actually ineffective. Also Tsar felt that it looked impressive to other countries. Many Russians set up groups that rebelled against tsar because the Duma wasnt getting the things they wanted, like rights.One group set up was the Vyborg Group and they appeared to the people to defy Tsar by not paying tax, they were soon executed by Stoylpin. The final chaos in Petrograd symbolised Tsar had been deserted by everybody which helped cause the Revolution of 1917 because he had no supporters left. With no supporters Tsar had no hope of staying in power for long because of the amount of opposition growing. From 18th February to 4th March many problems occurred for Tsar like strikes from people at home and from people in the army.Opposition grows stronger, Tsar dissolved what was left of the Duma but twelve of them refused to go and set up a Provisional Committee. Tsar was advised by Kerensky, a leader politician to step down and the Duma president Rodzyanko said to him their is not one honest man left in your entourage. The decent people have either left or been dismissed, this showed that Tsar had no followers left. Tsar decided to return to Petrograd b ecause he felt that if he went back all the problems would calm down.Altogether these key factors all helped cause the 1917 Revolution and World war One acted as the spark that caused it to finally happen. Industrial reform, Agrarian reform, Tsars personality and beliefs and the failure to meet needs after the 1905 revolution in the October manafesto all caused a lot of opposition to grow against Tsar. Other then World War One Tsars personality and beliefs was a main cause of the 1917 revolution, because of his stubbornness and refusal of allowing any freedom for people got people very angry.He also lost a lot of support from important people, like the Wealth influential court ministers because of his choice of having Rasputin as a friend and leaving him as his wifes adviser when he was away. Becoming Commander of Chief was also a big mistake for Tsar to have become. World War One was the incident that sparked of the Revolution because during World war one was when most opposition from Russians grew, because of the food shortages and prices going up. World War one was like the midwife of the revolution, like Lenin said war is the midwife of a revolution.
Friday, May 24, 2019
whale Mini golf, an indoor, 18-hole, glow-in-the-dark, monster-themed family entertainment center created and developed by husband and wife Patrick and Christina Vitagliano, started its operations in 2004 under daemon Entertainment, LLC. In the hopes of expanding operations and taking full advantage of the increasing popularity of family oriented entertainment centers, Monster Entertainment, LLC opened its doors to interested rightes in 2005.The estimated capital investment needed to set up a exemption of Monster Mini Golf ranges from $147,000 to $255,000, which already includes the franchise fee of $30,000. Initial term of the Franchise Agreement is five years and franchise is renewable for three successive terms of five years each. thither is also a royalty fee of 9% of gross sales paid weekly for their continuing support services.Monster Entertainment, LLC has designed an easy to determination business system for the franchisees of Monster Mini Golf. Aside from the support f rom management office, they also entitled to the following benefits readying. All franchisees are required to participate in a comprehensive training course that lasts approximately four weeks. This intensive program focuses on all aspects of the franchise system, products, services and techniques in operating the business. Training also covers management methods pertaining to personnel, office, sales, computer software and marketing procedures.On-site assistance. Management provides an on-site assistance to franchisees two weeks before the scheduled opening. Aside from this, they also deportment periodic site visits to provide guidance and assistance in the franchisees operations. 1. All franchisees will also receive a Monster Mini Golf Operations Manual that contains specifications, standards, procedures and recommendations to aid investors in the operation of their Monster Mini Golf franchises.Marketing materials and website development. Franchisees are provided with various pub licity, advertising materials and other promotional items. apiece location will also be given its own section in the companys website. Protected area or exclusive territory. Monster Entertainment, LLC awards only a limited number of franchises per geographic location based on franchisees location, population and drive time to the guaranteed site. To be considered for a feasible franchise rights, interested parties are asked to complete and submit Confidential Franchise Info Request form available online. Selection is based on the appliers disposition, sales, customer service skills, and their experience in basic inventory control, money management and budgeting. Other qualifications include maturity, judgment, stability and adaptability.One important come out that a prospective franchisor must consider is the local government regulations and taxes. In the United States, franchising is governed by both federal and state laws and in other countries, the manufacturing is being reg ulated. State registration though, may not be necessary depending on the franchises location.Other legal matters important to the set-up of a franchise would include compliance issues and documentation requirements. Other economic and financial factors that a franchisor must also look at include organizational structures, accounting practices, financial projections, financial responsibilities and anticipated market conditions.Referenceshttp//www.monsterminigolf.comhttp//www.franchisegator.comhttp//www.francorpconnect.comhttp//www.entrepreneur.comhttp//pennsylvania.franchisesolutions.com/business_for_salehttp//www.franchise.orghttp//www4.law.cornell.edu/uscodehttp//www.franatty.cnc.net
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Comedian Rodney Dangerfield once joked, I went to the fight the other night and a hockey game broke out, barely effect in sports is a continuous problem that is non amusing. Whether the conversation is the about the aloneiance games of the Ancient Greeks and Romans or the 2012 NFL season, there is one common factor and it is power. Over the course of history sporting events rescue become more civilized which does not make the blood games and Monday Night Football an apples to apples comparison, however one cannot debate the fact that madness still remains a main stay in sports directly.The real debate is who is responsible for its continuous globe. Has society witnessed so much emphasis that sports would not be sports without it? Did the media and the commercialization of sports help keep violence vital in todays games? Is there truly enough evidence to pinpoint the real culprit or can we all mutually oblige that all parties are to blame? The author argues that much of t he violence in sports today involves overconformity to the norms of the sport ethic which is absolutely valid.Jay Coakley discusses how athletes may use violence to prove their status amongst peers and gain popularity with spectators. He believes some athletes compensate their insecurities with extreme measures to prove themselves because they are only as good as their last game. each day athletes are looking to make that crowing devastating make up that will take aim fans jumping out of their seats, teammates giving them high fives and coaches praising them in team film sessions. They have a desire to gain a reputation that demands respects, a player with a killer instinct that opponents panic.While I hit with Coakley, it is only to a certain degree. In todays society you must factor in the media and the commercialization of sports as well. Players understand that the big hit will gain them the respect they desire, but it will also gain a clip in ESPNs top ten highlights. Pl ayers in todays game have a need to be noticed and recognized by the media because it will lead to cashing in on a big time sports contract and endorsement deals. Back in the 1970s players demanded respect because they wanted to be a tough guy which is also true today, but now they prefer to be a famous rich tough guy.Violence in sports does not only exist within the participants of sporting events either, which continues to build on the Coakleys argument that athletes use violence in an effort to gain spectators popularity. Sports fans fighting against other fans for obscene comments toward each other, wearing the wrong jersey in the wrong section, or looking to fight players for poor performances are becoming the norm. These events are putting fans in a state of wanting, in fact needing violence in order to be satisfied with sporting events.Soccer has become a sport that is synonymous with fan violence. Soccer fans have no level of fear when it comes to violence and it has come th e point that soccer players are scared of their own fans. Alexei Barrionuevo and Charles Newberry of the NY Times wrote an article discussing the extreme fan hostility and violence that occurs in Argentinian soccer. There is an organization in Argentina dedicated to ending violence in soccer named Lets Save Football, but there existence is not enough to deter the violence.In fact the president of the organization Monica Nizzard, stated, We dont feel safe inside of our stadiums in Argentina, That is why families have stopped going. (NY Times 2011). This is just one example of many fans creating a violent atmosphere that exists in sports today. Coalkey also describes a scene from Pat Conroys novel The Prince of Tides that has a coach addressing his team in a manner that puts a player in a state of mind looking to farm a violent experience.However he states many coaches dont use such vivid vocabulary because they know it can inspire dangerous forms of violence and then adds that the se coaches seek athletes that already think that way. He is correct, but at the same time incorrect. For example, the NFL recently made headlines with the New Orleans Saints bounty computer program where MSN Fox Sports quoted defensive coordinator Greg Williams quoted as dictum, We need to decide whether Crabtree wants to be a (expletive) prima donna or he wants to be a tough guy. He becomes gay when we take out that outside ACL. (Associated Press 2012). Coaches are just as responsible for violence in sports as the athletes. around coaches may not be quoted like Greg Williams was, but on both amateur and professional levels coaches prepare game speeches about going to war with the enemynot go pull up stakes it your best effort. Below is a recent controversial video of a football coach that may or may not have assaulted an fence 7th grade football player depending on your side of the situation. Regardless of the opinion on his actions it makes people wonder what this coach ma y be saying when the camera is not on. http//network. ardbarker. com/high_school/article_external/ covering fireyard/new_video_emerges_of_youth_coach_assaulting_player/12191230? refmod=backyard=foxsports Sports play a significant role in society and grab the attention of millions of viewers while impacting the lives of hundreds of thousands of athletes. Some athletes use violence as a basic instinct while playing sports. Some athletes will use it as a means to gain money, power and respect. Some fans will cheer for violence and some fans will jeer against it. Coaches and parents will teach their children the right and wrong of violence in sports.With all that said, violence is not doing a disappearing magic act from sports. It used to exist, still exists and will continue to exist. Throughout all of my reading for this assignment I go back to one quote from Dan Lebowitz, executive director of the Center for the Study of Sport in Society at Northeastern University in BostonQuestionin g violence in sports offers an opportunity to question humanity in general. (Discovery News, 2012) Cited References BarrioNuevo, A and Newberry, C. (2011, Nov. 26). In Argentina, Violence is Part of the Soccer Culture. Retrieved from NYTimes. com http//www. nytimes. om/2011/11/27/sports/soccer/in-argentina-violence-is-part-of-the-soccer-culture. html? pagewanted=all=0 This article discusses the extremely violent nature of soccer in Argentina. It goes into detail the actions of violent Argentinian soccer fans. It also discusses how they are attempting to put a stop to the violence. Associated Press (2012, April 06). Report Tape Captured Bounty Offer Retrieved from Fox Sports http//msn. foxsports. com/nfl/story/gregg-williams-instructed-new-orleans-saints-players-to-injure-san-francisco-49ers-040512 In this article the author discusses the New Orleans Saints bounty scandal.It discusses the initiative released quotes from Coach Greg Williams regarding the bounties. It goes into detai l about the entire tape and how it impacts the bounty scandal. Issac, A. (2012, Nov. 12). MNew Video Emerges of Youth Coach Assualting Playerkes Neon- Retrieved from Fox Sports http//network. yardbarker. com/high_school/article_external/backyard/new_video_emerges_of_youth_coach_assaulting_player/12191230? refmod=backyard&refsrc=foxsports The video clip was used as a reference. The video shows a clip of a youth football coach assaulting an opposing 7th grade player.It details the legal action taken stupefy against the coach and how it has affected his life. The players mother also speaks out against the coach. Sohn, E. (2012, March 07). Is Violence in Sport Inevitable Retrieved from Discovery News http//news. discovery. com/ misfortune/violence-sports-football-120307. html The author discusses violence in sports and fans reactions to violence. It discusses actual fan violence as well as the viewership reactions to violence. The author also discusses the impact violence would have on sports if it did not exist.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
The role of practice of law in the preventative of the community has farsighted been recognized. It is so of great importance that the operations behind the licit philosophy system be well understood in order to identify points that ar considered to be exemplary, as well as beas which atomic consequence 18 in lack of further evaluation and reorganization. This research paper allow discuss compasss of legal philosophy administration that be related to the recruitment and hiring process. A brief review of other related areas of jurisprudence administration will also be presented in order to picture a holistic everyplaceview of the topic.POLICE WORK AND RELATED PROBLEMSThe area of law pasture is an occupation that is strongly associated with misconduct and criminal acts. The act of performing jurisprudence relieve wizself is highly discretionary because it entails a combi terra firma of both(prenominal) standard law principles and soulal ideologies that influen ce a law officers values and morale. Police take a crap also involves coercive activity that regularly occurs in the most private situations which are often not in the presence of their immediate supervisors but in the vicinity of witnesses who, unfortunately, often distort the details of the criminal event when interviewed or asked to testify. Police work is also strongly associated with corruption through the extreme ill-treatment of police chest of drawers for the wrong benefits of other individuals (Klockars, 2000).Corruption is a form of misconduct that has long been a c at one timern of every society. Several attempts has been made to cook the application and use of corruption in police work yet there are some(prenominal) factors that decrease the likelihood of success in coercive this social problem. One of the factors that hinder the control of corruption is that police officers refuse to report activities that are deemed corrupt to their fellow officers. Also known as The formula or The Code of Silence, this secret has been with the police fight for decades.Another factor that prevents the control of corruption in police work is that police administrators are indecisive in acknowledging that corrupt events do exist in their respective police agencies. The idea that corrupt activities may benefit the police officers in terms of tautological financial income also influences police officers to continue performing or acknowledging corrupt acts. Another factor that prevents the success in controlling corrupt activities within the police force involves the scarcity of victims of these shameful acts who are willing to report the corrupt incident to federal investigators.For some time, corruption has been viewed by police administrators as a sign of the insufficiency of moral standards among police officers. To date, the officials of police administration has actively fought the problem of corruption in the police force by meticulously and guarded ly screening the new applicants for steads in the police force in order to lessen the probability that newly employ police officers will not afford to the perennial problem of corruption in their field of work. In step-up, police administrators have also aggressively followed and hunted down any members of the police force that are known to deal with corrupt activities during their limn of duty with the police force. Once these morally delinquent police officers are tracked, they are dismissed from their go unders so that any additional gaffes of corruption will surely be prevented.The removal of these corrupt police officers also assure that the negative influences of these police officers will not spread to the rest of the members of the police force. The concept of removal of a corrupt police officer from the police force is similar to the bad apple system in agriculture and this address has been strongly criticized in the past years. In order to better understand the pr oblems associated with police work, it is essential that the field of police work first be presented.THE ROLE OF A POLICE OFFICER A police officer pertains to a working employee of the police force who has been trained in special responsibilities much(prenominal) as counterterrorism and surveillance. A police officer is also equipped with the capabilities for child protection as well as protection of diplomatical individuals. Police officers are experienced in investigating crimes such as murder, burglary, rape and drug employmentking.It should be understood that the duties of a police officer embrace a wide range of functions. These officers are expected to be capable of responding to any type of situation that may occur during their time of duty. Police officers are considered as presidential term officials during investigatory events of crimes. In specific cities and communities, it is the responsibility of a police officer to maintain peace and conduct in the area, even if they are not on duty. Society perceives a police officer as a person who is answerable for instilling peace and order in his contingent area of duty. Peace and order can be attained through the enforcement of rules or prohibitions in terms of social inter sues. Police officers are also responsible in discouraging attempts to commit crimes, aside from investigating a crime that has already occurred in a particular area. In addition, police officers carry the legal role and authority to take hold any suspected individuals that may have played a role in a crime. They also have the authority to interrogate and detain the suspect, as well as report the incident and the associated suspects to the proper authorities. Police officers may also help in instilling the safety of the habitual during large gatherings. Such role may be similar to an emergency service wherein they could be called on to facilitate in public operations such as town or city programs and parades. These individuals also dole out as a source of immediate response during times of emergency and disasters because they serve as the first person at the scene of an incident.Once a police officer arrives at the particular site and makes a quick contemplate of the area, he then quickly informs the fire and emergency medical units of the city to respond to the situation. Depending on the state or country, police officers and firemen have the same line of call, wherein these two groups of government employees may respond to the scene of a disaster at the same time. Minor offenses are also reported by police officers in the form of citations which largely results in the implementation of fine. One good example of a minor offense includes the violation in the laws of driving and traffic such as illegal parking or over-speeding. Other traffic violations may include accosting a driver who has consumed more than the allowable amounts of alcohol drinks. The time lag of drivers that manipulate a vehicle un der the influence of alcohol prevents car accidents as well as deaths. Police officers are also trained in assisting individuals that are caught in the middle of an accident or even a simple car breakdown. It is interesting to know that police officers are trained in techniques in first aid as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Park rangers are also considered as police officers who man the home(a) lay and other open recreational locations. These individuals also enforce specific laws in order to instill peace and order in these specific areas. Police officers are also visible in areas where rallies and political activities are frequently held. These law enforcers are responsible in suppress overly active protests that hinders the rest of the public from performing their daily functions such as going to work.Police officers make sure that rallies and other kinds of protests are held within the allowable parts of the public area such as sidewalks and the rest of the peopl e and vehicles are not hindered from moving through their usual activities. at that place are some cases wherein protesters may be extremely upset regarding a particular political or ethical issue and these individual may start screaming and acting in more fierce behavior. Should this be the case, the police officers are authorized to control such actions to an acceptable level of protest.QUALIFICATION OF A POLICE OFFICER The credentials of a police officer often vary in each country, mainly depending on the expectations and roles of the police officer in that part of the world. However, it is a general requirement that a candidate for a position of police officer must show proof that he has completed some kind of formal education. Several decades earlier, police officers were not required to finish a college degree yet currently this has changed.Mostly due also to the changing times and the evolution of the society in terms of values and morals, candidates for positions of police officers are now required to carry a tertiary degree. In addition, the candidate for police officer is required to tolerate two to three years of training as a police constable prior to promotion to a position of high rank such as inspector or sergeant. It is a common path that a police officer originates from a military or security position. In addition to carrying a college degree, a candidate for police officer is also required to undergo a physical fitness examination. In the bump together States, there are currently laws that vary by state that describe the requirements for candidates for the position of police officer. The requirements include specific tuition regarding the applicants age and educational level, as well as the criminal records and training. A police agency is generally similar to that of a semi-military organization that requires particular training and experience before applicants are admitted to the police force. There are also specific qualifications b efore a particular police officer can be promoted to a higher position in the police force. It should be noted that promotion to a higher rank in the police force is not an automatic operation that occurs once a police officer has served for three years.Promotion to a higher rank entails taking additional examinations that serve as tools that will help appreciate the police officer if he is ready and competent enough to hold a higher ranking position. An interview is also conducted by the review table that serves as a personal questioning session for the candidate police officer for promotion. The stringent requirements for promotion of a police officer to a higher rank are commensurate to the responsibilities that this police officer will hold once he is awarded the higher police rank.It is actually normal for a police officer to remain in the same position ranking for some time and it is usually the highly competent officers that are often deserve a higher rank in the police forc e. There are some instances when a specific police officer stays at the same position rank for a decade or more because it has been observe through their performance that the particular police officer is not competent to serve from a higher position. Police officers who have served in the police force for a particular duration may also apply for the position of police medical specialist. The specialist positions include the detective, firearms officer or motorcycle officer.TRAINING AT THE POLICE ACADEMY A police academy is a training facility that is generally managed by the police department in order to serve as a venue for the education and development of the new recruits. These individual recruits were previously hired by the police department yet they are first required to undergo training at the police academy before they are allowed to work with the police force. The trainees at the police academy are taught essential skills that are expected of a police officer. The traini ng involves both classroom and actual action training that runs for some(prenominal) months.Full-time training requires that the candidates are present for the entire day at the police academy, with provisions for letting them stay in for several months. In private police academies, training is conducted during the evenings so that the trainees are able to work during the day time to earn their wages to support themselves. In police academies that are run by the police department, stipends are given to the trainees because they are already considered as employees of the police force. Training at the police academy includes the principles of arrest and booking of individuals. The use of firearms is also taught at the academy.Special driving skills are also taught at the police academy because this is essential is chasing suspects and criminals. The trainees are also educate in terms of CPR and first aid skills because these capabilities are expected of a competent police officer. T rainees are also taught skills in writing police reports as well as ethical measures in interacting with individuals that they would likely deal with on a daily basis as a police officer. Theories of probe and criminality will also be undertaken during the training of police officers. Methods in interacting with the community will also be taught at the police academy. After several months of training at the police academy, the trainees are required to take indite and practical examination to gauge the comprehension of the lessons that have been given to them. Upon passing the requirements of the written and practical examinations, the trainee is awarded a certification of police academy training and will then be assigned as a member of the police department. It has been observed that there has been an increase in recruitment of police officers in the past decade and it has been predicted that the number of newly recruited police officers will increase in the coming years. This is mostly due to the change in the society and politics of the country, as well as the increase in urbanization of cities.THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND equivalence AMONG MEN The hiring and recruitment of police officers has been influenced by the obliging Rights Act of 1964. Years ago, Martin Luther King had a dream that all men and women would be equal. The laws and progression of cultivated rights and immigration has changed the United States. Racial inequality and color prejudice has damaged the United States affecting the government system through legislation. The differences in culture primer and heritage are being traversed. Borders are supposedly being crossed.Educational theories and classroom practices are taking up new forms in order to conform and meet the educational needs of the global societies. Educators and teachers are being expected to share views and recognize values from different cultures, races, societies and ethnic groups. They are expected to come upon outside the system and custom of the dominant society and incorporate beliefs other than those they are accustomed with. Our laws and progression of Civil Rights and immigration has changed the United States (AARP, 2004). The challenges that face our nations children relates to the cultured right movements and immigration laws.The 1800s industrialization expansion and slave trade increased immigration to the United States, bringing around 25 million people between 1866 and 1915. In 1917, the United States began placing and enforcing restrictions on immigration. The government did have provisions before, however most statutes were requirements for naturalization, government powers, reporting of aliens or items allowed to import. Amid 1875 to 1888, the government wanted to exclude people from coming into the United States that were criminals (whether convicted of crime or misdemeanor), prostitutes, paid or slave laborers, people with contagious diseases, polygamist, anarchist, or a ny person who wanted or thought it was okay to overthrow a government through forceful violence or assassination of public officials.On February 5, 1917, a commission set forth by the President Woodrow Wilson, proposed and passed a law that enacted previous exclusions and added to exclude illiterate aliens. The excludable people were imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, persons with physical or mental defects which may affect their ability to earn a living, persons afflicted with tuberculosis, children unaccompanied by their parents, persons who admitted the commission of a crime involving moral turpitude, and women coming to the United States for immoral purposes. The 1920 U.S. count showed that the heaviest immigration prior to that time were from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and other countries in northern Europe.In the course of the ending of World War II in 1945, the number of aliens both legal and illegal increased dramatically. Immigrants were trying to escape poverty and o ppression from all over the world. Citizens of the United States began feeling the pressure of immigrants taking their jobs and exploitation expensive social services provided by the U.S. government with American tax dollars. The media began to portray evidence of racial inequality and color prejudice, damaging the image of the United States. Therefore, immigration and racial equality became debated hot topics.In 1857, the National Education Association (NEA) was formed to benefit teachers and students, and work to bring attention to educational issues, such as low teachers salaries, teacher retirement benefits, student testing and other bureaucratic demands. The NEA became an advocate for students and teachers through curriculum enhancements to both side manner of speaking arts and history to benefit Immigrants, African Americans, and Indians (Holcomb 2006). The NEA lobbied to encourage laws like The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and The Immigration Nationality Act of 1964, which stil l affects our laws today, encouraging the idea of multiculturalism, thus expanding subjects such as history and language arts to include viewpoints of historically powerless and oppressed groups.During the complaisant rights movement, there were two Americas, a minatoryen America and a uninfected America. The school, bathrooms, water fountains, restaurants, bus seats, libraries, movie theaters, hospital floors, and even the line to see Santa Clause were all segregated based on the color of skin. African Americans went to school four months out of the year because they needed to help earn incomes the rest of the months. Their schools had no cafeteria, most with outside bathrooms and their books were passed down from the white schools so they were all out of date. The school building that contained African American students were falling apart. The classes were overcrowded with too many students, and not enough room for all the needed classes and materials. For the most part, thes e students had teachers that were substitutes who didnt know what they were doing. The teachers that were in these schools had fixed values for these students and did not provide curriculum that was interesting or pertained to the students who were learning.The assumption of teachers was that these African American students did not deserve a great deal in life and that a little, even a very little, (a very little) for a Negro child is a great deal more than he or she has earned. Complaints were being vocalized with the school districts letting white students ride the bus to attend white schools, and black students had to walk to their school when they lived right next to an all white school.In 1951, the Supreme royal court finally had to face and rule on the subject of civil rights. A group called the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), created in 1909 to work towards eliminating segregation and contrariety, came together in a court case embrown ve rsus Board of Education. African Americans had started filing suits against the educational systems as early as 1845, but the Supreme Court combined five cases to hear in 1951. The issues brought before the court was because of school conditions, segregation, deficient curriculum, pupil to teacher ratio, teacher training, extracurricular activity programs offered, transportation deficiencies, and of course teacher salaries.The discriminatory environment derived from civil rights and immigration issues unlocked, and then caused the world to see that human tendencies are to prejudge, discriminate against, and stereotype people based on their ethnic, religious, physical, or cultural characteristics.In 1954, chocolate-brown versus Board of Education of Topeka, also called Brown I ruled by Chief Justice Warren, acknowledged learning to be the most significant tax of state and local government and repudiated the separate but equal doctrine, deciding that racially segregated schools were intactly unequal (Brown Foundation, 1996). The decision had great impact and historic to the civil rights movement. The Supreme Court ruled that school had no place for separate but equal status.A year later the Supreme Court decision in Brown II defined how and when school desegregation would be achieved because there was no standard or deadline set in Brown I. The legal precedence of this time caused far reaching social and ideological implications that brought some changes in the 1960s and beyond. On the other run, the legal wrangling did not make immigration and civil right issues disappear because of the ambiguity of the legal decisions. The 1960s brought about race riots all over the U.S., deaths because of race, and more laws that declared discrimination illegal.On January 20, 1964, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into the Presidency, after the sudden death of President John F. Kennedy. As America mourned the death of JFK, President Lyndon B. Johnson placed his hand on the Holy Bible that was being held by his wife and took the oath of office. On that particular day, Lyndon B. Johnson launched his new program called the Great Society. The agenda was intended to allege a better quality of life for all Americans. Reporters knew the Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson as a legislative miracle. In fact, Dick West of the Dallas Morning cuttings denotative that Mr. Truman could not get started on a civil rights bill because a rebellious congress passed an immigration law over a veto.Jack Kennedy took one whirl at federal aid to education, and then backed off. Then he tried to get Congress to set up a part of Housing and Urban Development with Cabinet Status and was turned down in the House 264 to 150. On the other hand, West writes that President Johnson was able to get these laws passed exactly the way he wanted them, thus being named The Congressional Magician. President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on July 2, 1964, during a lu ncheon ceremonial late President Abraham Lincoln in the East room of the White House. The bill was about discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The President sat at a small table in the center with racks holding 72 pens, which was an insufficient amount.He actually used over 100 pens to sign this triumphant bill into law. Robert F. Kennedy sat in the front row, Martin Luther King sat in the second row, and other senators and cabinet members attended. President Johnsons speech was swift but had great emphasis as he called on all Americans to close the springs of racial poison and eliminate the last vestiges of dark in our beloved America.The President spoke of the challenge that Lincoln bestowed upon America asking for preservation of the union, enlargement of liberties for America and for being true to the Declaration of independency which gives liberty to all. The speech was a direct challenge for all Americans to ensure that all people including B lack Americans will be a part of a complete and equal society.Immigrants thus have an equal opportunity to apply as police officers. However, it has been observed that most immigrants do not perform well in the written examination for police officers because the links between illiteracy and illegal immigration is astounding. Hispanic immigrants come to the United States without having the prefatory literacy skills needed (Garraty and Carnes, 2001). Teachers in Texas are finding that their classes are mostly English language learners. Bilingual assistants are there to translate to students and teacher regarding teaching information and notes they are also there to translate during parent teacher conferences.Each state requires that each police officer candidate establish a language proficiency assessment to show that he passed the proficiency and achievement-level this is required for those individuals whose primary language is not English. The examining committee classifies the app licant and recommends placement and help to benefit the applicant. There are now reports that the translator and the English Language Learning programs are now improving. Most immigrants are visual learners hence English or Spanish languages are no barriers to learning. The problem is when the Hispanic people take the summers off to return to Mexico.Jackie stated that it seems like they lose the English proficiency learned previously. temporary hookup some teachers see the problem improving there are immigrants who have voiced their concern. There are certain citizens who are concerned that teachers are expenditure more time because of English Language Learners and have even dealt with hearing the American-born individuals in a special class because of observation as a wearisome reader. Upon further investigation, it was realized the teacher was teaching and reading to the children in Spanish, which English-speaking students did not understand.Because education focus has become mu lti-cultural teachers use literature to teach about other cultures. Multi-cultural literature develops values and self-concept for students. On the other hand, some say American-born students reading and writing scores are declining and achievement gaps are closing. Some opine that many linguists and educators focus on the multicultural aspect, degrading the English Language. As of 1992, many states require teachers to have a certification to teach English as a Second Language, also called ESL in order to assist immigrants who are in training.Teachers must have the appropriate academic background is ESL theory and methodology. time there are some educators who back bilingual education, which is where students learn basic skills in their own language while they are learning to speak English. English-speaking students will have a chance to learn Spanish. However, we are facing political efforts to make English the United States official language. Senator Pete Domenci of New Mexico e xpressed that the inherent shallowness behind English Only would deny the United States the opportunity to meet is full market potential.Therefore, he introduced an approach called English Plus. English-plus, adopted in New Mexicos constitution requiring those public school teachers must be trained in both English and Spanish so that Spanish-speaking students will be taught English properly. On the other hand, many believe there is no need to make English the official language of the United States because it limits us from having a worldview. The English Language is the most multi-cultural language and it celebrates diversity because of the multi-cultural influences from the French, Germans, and Africans, which continually make it powerful and diverse.There is an increase in the need for police officers to establish peace and order in the country. At the same time, the country is experiencing a rapid immigration increase of Hispanics and African American students. The put forward o f the current level and police administration in terms of the hiring and recruitment process is an interesting area to cover.The costs of raising education potential for both African Americans and Latino students in order to provide equal opportunity for hiring immigrants would be high, yet there would be benefits by savings in public peace and order expenditures and increased tax revenues based on higher incomes. Holding onto our legacy of the past, we are now teaching with a cultural approach attempt to raise the academic and professional achievement of all trainees and students through culturally relevant lessons.ReferenceAARP, LCCR, & Library of Congress (2004). Save Our History Voices of Civil Rights. The History Channel The Hearst Corporation.Brown Foundation (1996). Brown VS Board of Education About the Case. Retrieved March 9, 2006 from http//brownvboard.org/summary/.Garraty, J.A. & Carnes, M.C. (2001). A Short History of the American Nation. (P. 450). New York LongmanKlocka rs CB (2000) The measurement of police integrity. U.S. Department of Justice Research Briefs. May 2000.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Mencius and Xunzi both constitute Confucian philosophy yet ca-ca a dramatic altogethery unalike understanding of clement nature. Additionally, the two philosophers make their arguments in strikingly dissentent literary methods. Mencius believes that the goodness of human nature is like the downward course of water (147) in that people are of course inclined to be good, and he makes this argument through conversations among friends and public figures. In contrast, Xunzi staunchly argues that Human nature is evil (179) and through essays claims that human natures only goodness derives from the conscious activity (179).The two philosophers both use many metaphors to explain their own interpretation of human nature in different ways. By exploring the philosophies of these two great Confucian thinkers, one better understands the multitude of ways human nature can be explained in Confucianism throughout Chinese history. As the single most influential contri howeveror to a view of hum an nature in Confucianized East Asia (116), Mencius philosophy is fundamental. Mencius argues that human nature is good, and ru teachings fur thered natural tendencies. To explain the natural goodness of human nature Mencius shows that the goodness of human nature is like the downward course of water. By this he claims, there is no human being lacking in the aspiration to do good, just as there is no water lacking in the tendency to flow downward (147). Furthermore he counters the claim that water can be manipulated to go many directions by rationalizing that, while people can be made to do what is non good, what happens to their nature is like this(147). Overall, this metaphor is used to show that without manipulation or outside forces, people naturally want to do good things. 1 Additionally, Mencius asserts that the innate knowledge and ability, that of the child, is original and good due to the natural human tendency toward goodness.He explains that, what people are able to do without having learned it is original, good ability. What they know without having to think about it is original, good knowledge (156). Furthermore he gives the practical example that, there are no juvenile children who do not know to love their parents (156). Another metaphor, that of the child falling into the well, advances the brain that this innate knowledge can be found in all people.Mencius explains that a man upon seeing a, child falling in to a well, his mind would always be filled with alarmtherefore, all human beings have a mind that cannot bear to see the sufferings of others (129). By claiming that a man can not help but feel this alarm naturally supports Mencius idea that by nature humans can not bear to see the suffering of other. Finally, Mencius uses the example of Ox Mountain, which was once good-lookingly covered in trees but is now bare to show the transformation of the outward appearance of human nature. Upon seeing, this barrenness, people suppose that the muckle was never wooded. But how could this be the nature of the mountain? (151).He asks. By this Mencius illustrates that one might suppose that a man never had the capacity for goodness just because he does not now follow the Way, however just as is the mountains nature to be wooded, it is mans nature to be good. In contrast to Mencius optimistic thoughts on human nature, Xunzi argues that, human nature is evil its goodness derives from the conscious activity (179). By this Xunzi means that human nature tends towards a fondness for profitenvy and hate beautiful sights and sounds and following human nature and indulging human emotions will inevitably lead to contention and strife (180). Such a grim outlook on 2human nature belike derives from the tremulous and violent time period in which he developed these philosophies. Xunzis journeys during the Warring States Period likely had an impact on his pessimistic stance on human nature. However, Xunzi explains that these low human des ires can be and should be controlled and directed by means of rite and teachings. He praises the value of teachers as a way of practicing virtue and claims, one must be transformed by the example of a teacher and steer by the way of religious rite and rightness before one will attain modestly and yielding, accord with refinement and ritual, and return to crop (180).Xunzi refutes the idea that ritual and rightness are part of human nature and instead are the guide of activity through the metaphor of a thrower and carpenter. Xunzi rationalizes, a potter whitethorn mold clay and produce an earthen pot, but how could molding pots of clay be the potters nature? A carpenter may carve wood and produce utensils but how could carving utensils out of wood be the carpenters nature? (182). In this metaphor Xunzi illustrates how rituals are the result of conscious activity, and these rituals established models and limits in order to reform and improve the human emotional nature (180).Withou t such limits to evil human nature, society would fall into chaos. Mencius, in each of his metaphors illustrates how human nature has a tendency to be good. In contrast Xunzis metaphors and explanations illustrate his claim that human nature is bad. Although these two thinkers differ greatly in philosophy, they share the idea that governance and personal cultivation have a close relationship. Mencius belief that human nature is good is relate to his idea of proper governance.Leading by example allows people to follow the Way and to be in touch with their true human nature, and therefore Heaven. In contrast, Xunzi believes that evil human nature can be curbed and 3 directed through conscious activity and ritual so as to allow for order in government. Finally, the two, as ru thinkers, also believe in the ability of humans in general to aspire to higher personal cultivation. Mencius states, if one does what is not good, that is not the fault of ones capacities (149) and similarly Xunz i also claims, The man on the highroad can become a Yu (183) meaning any man on the street has the natural endowment needed to understand virtue.
Monday, May 20, 2019
Introduction benzine which is also known as benzol is an thorough compound that is colorless, highly flammable and with a sweet odor. It tends to evaporate quickly when go away uncovered. It is a chemical compound that is normally formed by a natural process such as volcanic formation or forest fires. It is also formed from hydrocarbons. It was said to be reach as a component of the cigarette smoke (ACS, 2008). Some of it physical properties are a comparatively high melting point and high solubility in water.It is mostly use as a solvent in most chemical industries. It functions ranges from the issue of drugs, plastics, synthetic rubber to dyes production where it mostly serves as the precursors of such industrial products. Route of exposure Benzene exposure has a destiny of wellness equal and there are mostly three ways in which an individual can be exposed to benzene toxicity, these are inhalational route, ingestion and transdermal absorption (Media Fact, 2008). Inhalation of benzene is normally as a get out of the breathing of the benzene fumes.Benzene fumes are inhaled easily because benzene is an extremely volatile organic compound and this kind of exposure is one of the deadliest because of it immediate contact with the lung parenchyma. This then elicit a lot neurological symptoms such as headache, dizziness, tachycardia (increase in heart rate), tremors and subsequent death if untreated on time. Benzene ingestion result from eating of benzene laden foods or beverages and its noticeable symtoms are neurological eon those of transdermal route ordinarily result from contact with the benzene or benzene laden materials (Media Fact, 2008).The health problems cause by this route of benzene exposure are erythema (reddening of the skin), scaling dermatitis, suppression of the hematopoietic placement and pancytopenia (Media Fact, 2008) Sources of Benzene Exposure The major sources of human exposure to benzene are environmental, occupational and consum er products. Benzene is usually released into air from sources like gasoline filling stations, underground leakage of petroleum, vehicular exhaust, cigarette smoke, waste products or sewage and some food products.Most of the occupational related benzene exposure are seen mainly in industries like those involve in rubber production, chemical plants, refineries and shipments and retail shops. Other sources include consumer products that are make of benzene such as glues, adhesives, cigarettes, paint and varnishes e. t. c Short and long term effects The mulct term effects of benzene exposure are drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, tremors, confusion and unconsciousness (ACS, 2008).The previous symptoms are as a result of exposure of about 700-300ppm while acute exposure of high dose results in vomiting, irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, narcolepsy, convulsion and tachycardia. In extreme cases of high dose ingestion death usually results. The long term effect of benzene toxicity has been attributed to the interference with the normal blood cell production i. e. the hematopoietic cells. The sequeale of this is anemia and leucopenia. An individual with this allow for be immunocompromised hence such individual will be prone to opportunistic diseases.The long term effect can also be seen to result in reproductive organ dysfunction. Precautionary measures 1. The use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, forestage and some other clothing materials. 2. Special training on equipments handling and usage 3. If there is unintended release of the benzene quick evacuation of such laboratory must be done desperately 4. Proper ventilation of the laboratory References ACS, (2008). Benzene. Prevention and early detection Retrieved Sept 4, 2008 From www. cancer. org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Benzene. asp
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Definitions urbanization The process in which an increasing proportion of the race live in cities/urban beas. Urban growth Increase in population size and/or physical size of the towns, cities and new(prenominal) large urban settlements in a country or a region. Process whereby settlements grow in term of population number and/or physical size Megacity A giant metropolis with a population of at least 10 million Slums A residential bea that is physically and socially deteriorated and in which satisfactory family life is impossible. Squatters Shelters with poor structural quality and developed without legal cl organises to the land and/or permit from the concerned authoritiesTrends in urbanisationGeneral trendsIn 1950, there were two megacities with 10 million or more inhabitants. By 2005, this number has increased to 20 and it is projected that there will be 22 megacities by 2015. developing countries will have 18 of the 22 megacities in 2015.LEDCs vs MEDCsSince 1950, the most rapid growth in urbanisation has occurred in LEDCs (Less frugalally Developed Countries) in South America, Africa and Asia. Between 1950 and 1990, the urban population in LEDCs has doubled. In China, the urban population grew from 192 million to 375 million in 16 eld. However, this is not the case in MEDCs, which rather face the phenomenon of counter-urbanisation where people choose to move away from the bustling city to the quieter rural environment.Positive impacts (Reasons for urbanisation)Wage and employment diffe schismials Economic advancements ar better in the city for migrants due to higher wages and increased number of functional days. For example, In Dehli, rural migrantsincome increase by 150% comp ared to those in villages. Job opportunities in the city eject also be found in the form of employment in informal sectors such as hawkers selling food by the sidewalks. This requires limited capital as notes does not have to be spent on renting a workplace or a stall.T he cities provide a great opportunity for rural migrants to climb the income ladder. The increased wealth will enhance the lives of the migrants and their families as money gage be spent on proper food, urine, healthcare and even education. If the money is invested well in their children, their families provide be brought out of the cycle of poverty, increasing their standard of living in the enormous run.Access to Amenities and ServicesDue to the sozzled proximity of people in the highly populated cities, it is easier and cheaper to provide amenities that are accessible and affordable to everyone. This is referred to as the economies of scale, indeed allowing city dwellers to have better and cheaper access to water and electrical supply. This results in an advance in their living standards and decreases ones chance of contracting diseases related to the escape of proper water supply.For example, water pipes and sewers can be constructed within densely populated areas more efficiently than laying prospicient pipelines connecting houses in more dispersed rural settlements. The poor access to basic nucleotide has a disproportional effect on rural women as they perform most of the domestic chores and often walk long distances to fetch water. The energy spent on getting water can be better channeled to frugal activities in urban areas.Future ProspectsPeople are willing to endure short-term difficulties in the hopes of better prospects of economic authorise and improved welfare in the longer term, even if only for their children.Economic growthCities are engines of economic growth as they are places where money, services, wealth and manpower are centralized. Cheap labour will attract foreign investors as production bell is low. Through trade and tourism, foreign money will flow into the country, boosting the economy. Urban-based economic activities card for more than 50% of the grossdomestic product (GDP) In all countries. For example, Mumbai, the richest city in India, ha the highest GDP of any city in South, West and exchange Asia.Negative impacts (Challenges)Urban unemployment and urban povertyThere is a huge economic income disparity, leaving a huge gap between the rich and the poor in the cities. This is because the rural migrants insufficiency education and the skills required to get a good job. Hence, the inhabitants of the urban areas have better access to the mixed industries due to the higher levels of education they received, while rural migrants only earn a meager income. This is make worse by the lack of jobs due to the sudden increase in population and workforce in the city. Many rural migrants turn to the informal sector as their source of income, where there is no accept for them to pay valuatees.However, this results in a decrease in the governments income, which can be employ to build and improve infrastructure and provide better amenities and services to the people. For example, in Morocco, street vend ors are a common sight as these mobile traders do not have to pay rent or municipal tax. However, these informal traders cause small retailers to lose out in the competition and has obligate many small businesses in the area to close down.Traffic congestionThe increased income bureau an increase in close ownership of cars as a form of luxury instead of taking public transportation. However, this leads to traffic congestions during breaker point hours due to insufficient roads in the transport network, leading to delays and frustrations. It is estimated that in Bangkok, a car spends an medium of 44 days per year stuck in traffic. Apart from being a waste of time, it also causes environmental and noise pollution. This affects the quality of life for urban dwellers.Environmental degradationThe increase in private car ownership and early(a) human activities result in air pollution and other forms of environmental degradation such as dumping of chemical waste in waterways. More tha n 80% of sewer in developingcountries is pink-slipped untreated, polluting rivers, lakes and coastal areas. This makes water unfit for drinking and also upsets the ecosystem. Fumes from exhaust pipes cause the air to be filled with harmful particles that negatively affect the health of urban dwellers, especially those with respiratory difficulties such as asthma.This is a prominent problem in Beijing, where the smog in the air is so thick that it is a cause of worry for the citizens. Smoking causes lead pollution in the air, which has adverse effects on others health. The air in New Mexico causes lead levels in babies to be so high that it impairs their genius development. This affects the social wellbeing of the citizens.HousingRapid urbanisation has led to the development of squatter settlements and an informal sector to the economy. By 2050, it is estimated that the gentlemans gentlemans population will be 9 billion, of which 3.5 million will be living in passs and squatter s ettlements. There is a huge demand for accommodate due to the great increase in urban population. This pushes up the price of housing. Poor rural migrants who are unable to afford proper housing are forced to live in slums or squatters.1. These settlements lack proper sanitation, drainage and disposal systems (dumping ground). The houses are closely packed in a disorderly fashion, and often overcrowded with people. This makes the spread of communicable diseases such as tuberculosis quick and easy, giving rise to a high likelihood of health problems, especially wedded the unsanitary conditions. 2. There is an inadequate access to clean water and lack of a proper sewage system, allowing water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid to be spread easily. (2 million children are killed yearly by water contaminated by sewage.)3. There might be a high incidence of disregard breakouts as the close proximity of the houses make it easy for the fire to spread. Furthermore, the disorderly arrangement of houses makes it difficult for slum residents to escape easily from the fire. 4. Lack of basic amenities and services such as electricity means the need to use oil lamps and kerosene for dismissal. This also increases the chance of a fire. 5. Makeshift shelters are reinforced using low quality building materials such ascardboards, planks, etc. that might be flammable. This encourages a fire breakout, and also means that a fire can cause the residents to lose all their possessions. 6. The lack of a proper drainage system might lead to flooding, especially for slum settlements build on water-retention areas.SolutionsHOUSING1. (Overcrowding) Curb the flow of rural-urban migration to ensure that the government can cope with the pace and provide the necessary infrastructure required a. Improve living conditions in rural areas such that there will not be a need for rural dwellers to move to the city. b. Indonesian migrants to Jakarta are required to obtain star sign cards to prove that they have a job and accommodation in the city before licence is granted to them to leave the rural areas. 2. (Slums) Improving living conditions of squatter settlements a. For a Better Calcutta in India The Central Metropolitan Development Authority (CDMA) launched this 250 million programme to make slums more bearable and the city habitable by installing sanitation and sewers, drinking water and streetlights, health care and education. a.i. 150 000 street lighting points provideda.ii. Provision of 90 litres of water per capita per day. More than 20 000 water tap points and connections have been provided a.iii. Revamp and restoration of drainage and sewage systems 45 000 permanent sanitary latrines (1 per 35 people) a.iv. Construction of 600m of paved roads and pathwaysa.v. Gardens, position and playgrounds on 60 sites are under construction.Provision of subsidized housing and relocationa. Cingapura project, Sao Paulo, Brazila.i. Brazil aims to replace slums with low-rise blocks of flats. They aim to resettle 92 000 families from 243 slum sites a.ii. Residents pay for the house over a span of 20 years at a low interest rate. 4. Self-Help Schemesa. In Nairobi, Kenya Africa, the World back gives financial support to thesquatters. twist lots are provided and laid out with water, drains, roads lighting and occasionally clinics and schools. Squatters are given scurvy loans for building materials and are expected to build their own homes on prepared sites. 5. With these interventions, slum and squatter dwellers of urban areas are experiencing an improvement in the living environment.TRAFFIC 1. Restrictionsa. Curbing vehicle growth by increasing the cost of private car to discourage car ownership. a.i. For example, in SG, potential car owners must pay to instruction for a Certificate of Entitlement (COE) b. Reducing congestion by limiting the number of cars on the road. b.i. In Singapore, ERP gantries are set up on frequently congested roads to collect additional road tax during peak hours. b.ii. Beijing restricts certain cars with certain numbers from going on the roads on weekdays 2. foster the use of public transport by improving and subsidizing public transport to make it accessible and affordable.MacroconceptsUrbanisation is an fatal process for a country on its way to development. No country has achieved high-income status without first urbanizing, and nigh all countries become at least 50% urbanized before fully reaching middle-income status. urbanization plays an important role in economic, political and cultural development, and also provides better access to education, employment and healthcare, hence improving the social wellbeing of the people.Even though urbanisation brings about both advantages and disadvantages, many of the urban problems are results of poor management and planning and the absence of coherent urban policies. For example, in Africa, urban areas are economically stagnant or in recession, h ence local authorities do not have the money or expertise to provide services such as access to water, housing, education and healthcare. This results in the system of slums. (70% of Africas urban population live in slums) Hence, urbanisation itself is not a problem, and should be encouraged. However, it has to be accompanied with proper planning andregulation.