Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Microwave Oven and Brand Image Essay

Operations Strategy at Galanz- One Page Summary Background Galanz is the world leader in selling microwave ovens with 60% of the domestic market and 44. 5% of the international market in 2003. The company was founded in 1978 by Liang Qingde. Its headquarters are located in Shunde, China. In 1991 it bought the blueprints and production lines of Toshiba’s microwave ovens and made its first microwave in 1992. In 1995 Galanz replaced Shell electric as the leading microwave manufacturer in China. The next year Galanz started a six year price war and Toshiba and Panasonic had limited the magnetron supply. In 1997 the company started developing its own magnetron and finally in 2003 the company finally received some recognition in the overseas market. Internal Analysis A strength to Galanz is its position in the domestic market. It is the largest company with a large customer base and a well known brand. It has developed its supply chain which is vertically integrated and this is also a key strength. As the company grew the importance of innovation and developing its own R&D became more and more apparent and this is a strength. Weaknesses to Galanz are its low brand awareness in the international markets and poor management structure which is highly centralized. The company also overlooks data records and codes of practice which is a large weakness because it shows poor management and commitment to ethics. The final weakness would be its conflict between the R&D department and production departments. Since this can slow down production and innovation. Galanz uses a low cost strategy but also tries to incorporate product innovation. External Analysis Now that Galanz creates most of its own parts (about 90%) for its microwaves it has great opportunity in increasing its R&D and producing highly innovative products. It also has opportunity to improve on its brand image in the international market and gain more market share. A threat to Galanz is the possible lawsuits from governments because of its highly aggressive low price war. Another threat is Galanz becoming too focused on OEM and having to compete with strategic partners and potentially losing orders. Galanz is positive in the bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of substitutes, and threat of new entrants parts of the five forces model. It is a very large company with large demand and it can influence the decisions and prices of its suppliers easily. The barriers to entry are high since the suppliers of the megnetrons are limiting the amount produced. Although there are a few substitutes for microwaves, they are not threatening because to other product can do what a microwave does. The intensity of the competition is very high and this is Galanz only negative factor. Summary of key SWOTs, key success factors, and key risk factors Galanz’s strengths would include its size and its vertically integrated value chain. Its recognition of the growing concern to stress the importance of R&D and product innovation is also key. Galanz weaknesses are its low brand awareness, centralized management structure, the internal conflict between departments, and ignoring the codes of practice. Opportunities of the company are to continue to increase its R&D departments and improve its brand image internationally. Threats include possible lawsuits from governments and too much focus on OEM part of its business. The STEP factors of the industry show that Galanz is doing well in the technological and economic parts but is weak in the social and political side. The company must focus on its low cost strategy and continue to develop its value chain internationally. It will be risky for Galanz to enter markets where its brand is not well known. It is also risky for the company to start focusing too much on innovation since this may lead it away from its original successful low cost strategy. Challenge Statement or Question How can Galanz adapt its competitive strategy and its mass production system to meet the needs of the industry and the demands of the customers, and establish a well known brand image while continuing to hold a large market share and bringing value to its stakeholders?

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

The Final Stages Of World WAr II In 1945

During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After six months of intense strategic fire-bombing of 67 Japanese cities the Japanese government ignored an ultimatum given by the Potsdam Declaration. By executive order of President Harry S. Truman the U. S. dropped the nuclear weapon â€Å"Little Boy† on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6, 1945,[1][2] followed by the detonation of â€Å"Fat Man† over Nagasaki on August 9. These are the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare. [3] Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki,[4] with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. The Hiroshima prefectural health department estimates that, of the people who died on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling debris and 10% from other causes. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness. A plausible estimate of the total immediate and short term cause of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from flash burns, and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illness. [5] Since then, more have died from leukemia (231 observed) and solid cancers (334 observed) attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs. [6] In both cities, most of the dead were civilians. [7][8][9] Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II. Germany had signed its unavoidable[2] Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe. The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament. [10] The role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U. S. ‘s ethical justification for them is still debated. [11]

Monday, July 29, 2019

Body image and gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Body image and gender - Essay Example This essay "Body image and gender" outlines the attitude of both genders to their bodies and different disorders which are connected with that. It has been shown repeatedly that body image is the most significant contributor to eating disorders (Hoyt & Kogan, 2001). Studies have also shown that approximately 90% of all persons that have eating disorders are women (Shirao et al. 2005). This might stem from the fact that during pubescence, a woman’s figure tends to deviate from socio-cultural ideals, whereas that of men tends to move toward what is lauded in society (2001). In accordance with this, the study done by Hoyt and Kogan revealed that while 84% of college men surveyed were satisfied with their current weight, only 66% of the women were satisfied with theirs. It also showed that underweight women at-risk for anorexia showed little or no signs of being more satisfied with their body image than were those women of normal or excessive weight. However, in a study done by Fr iedman, et al. (2002), the degree of a person’s obesity (whether male or female) correlated with their evaluation of body image. Further, body image was found to be a mediator or determiner of self esteem and level of depression. This general tendency in women to be more dissatisfied with their bodies than men extends even to adolescents and pre-teens. Phares, Steinberg, and Thompson (2004) have cited research showing that adolescent girls of average weight are about as likely as overweight adolescents to be on a diet.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Radio 1 report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Radio 1 report - Essay Example BBC has many local stations in different cities of the UK. Around 40 local radio stations are working in England and Channel Islands under the name of BBC. BBC Radio 1 was established in 1967 with an intention to broadcast popular music and other entertainment activities. The popularity and the rating of Radio 1 were extremely high until recent times. However, the popularity of radio 1 seems to be declining in recent times. â€Å"Radio 1 had 10.87 million listeners in the third quarter of 2008, up from 10.58 million in the third period of 2007. However, listeners tuned in for less time, with a fall in its audience share to 9.8% from a seven-year high of 10.6% the same period last year† (Plunkett, 2008). This paper explains the station policy, play lists, and specific programs that are broadcasted by radio 1. Also, this paper analyses how fully and completely does radio 1 provides access to culture, music and public service inspired ideas specified in its service remit Unlike many other radio stations in the UK, radio 1 works on some unique policies. For example, radio 1 usually conducts roadshows with the DJs and pop stars in order to reach out even distant audience. The direct experiences received from the audiences will be broadcasted from 16:00-19:00 every weekday, with a 15-minute break at 17:45(BBC Radio 1, 2014) There are hundreds of programs broadcasted by Radio 1. A unique program of radio 1 is the breakfast show. It is broadcasting between 6:30 am and 10:00 am, Monday to Friday and is hosted by Nick Grimshaw at present. Dance Anthems, Xtra’s stories, Essential mix, Xtra live, chart shows such as UK singles chart (aired on Sunday afternoons) etc are some of the other popular shows on radio 1 (BBC Radio 1, 2014). Apart from regular shows, radio 1 airs many special shows and events time to time. For example, radio 1 has celebrated its 40

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Mining Industry Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Mining Industry - Research Paper Example They are used in constructing the foundation of structures like houses, buildings and towers. They are also necessary in making pipelines and electric lines. Metals have really many uses in construction (Ballast, 2007, p. 216). Even the tools used by carpenters and the machines used in construction are all made from metals. Metals are not only used for construction and ornaments, they are also proven to be necessary in kitchen wares, dining wares, weapons, vehicles, coins, hospital equipment, factory machines, computers, appliances, and many more. Metals have been part of the daily life since they have the characteristics of having high tensile strength and conductive properties while some of them are ductile and malleable (Kjelle, 2006). Those unique characteristics make metals very important in the lives of people. Without them, technology will not be able to advance quickly and people will not have the tools that they need to make their works easier than before. Metals are extract ed from the earth together with other minerals that are necessary for survival of humankind. The activity of mineral extraction is called mining (Hartman and Mutansky, 2002, p. 1). It has been conducted many times already as people need minerals as raw materials for creating the objects that they use. Such dependence upon the minerals and mining has led to the understanding of the nature of the earth and considering it as the source of richness. Mining is not just a simple process of extraction as it gets the minerals from rocks, soil and other geological particles from the land or even under water. Geological materials may vary in size from big boulders of rocks to small stones and gravel (Hartman and Mutansky, 2002, p. 5). With the different sizes of materials, mining requires various approaches especially when extraction is needed to be done in reefs. Mining is usually undertaken to satisfy economic interests as some minerals are proven to be precious metals which cost very high in the market. People may find them to be expensive and the sellers will get lumps of wealth from the precious metals and minerals. Some people may think that it is easy to obtain minerals and metals but they are gathered in complex manners. In addition, processing must be done after the extraction before they become useful in the market. Normally the complex processes in extraction and refining add up to the market price of the metals (Hartman and Mutansky, 2002, p. 15). The said process in the aforementioned paragraph takes a long run wherein the extracted materials from the earth must be segregated to separate the metals from the waste materials. The separated materials called side materials may not be totally wasted but they are not the priority of the miners. In the mining area, it is a common sight to gather more waste than the raw metal (ore) during the whole mining activity in a given area. Because of the low chance of obtaining much ores, detailed planning in the quest for the raw metals and minerals are needed (Panagiotou and Michalakopoulos, 2000, p. 439). The whole activity puts in high expenses in the side of the companies involved in the activities. The waste separated from the ores during the mining process is classified as either mineralized or sterile. The former has the capacity to react with acids while the latter does not have any affinity for acids. The

Post a paragraph about your reaction to the lecture on plagiarism and Essay

Post a paragraph about your reaction to the lecture on plagiarism and the paraphrase practice. What aspects of this are new to y - Essay Example Moreover, to avoid plagiarism paraphrasing is a good tool. However, this may also be included as a means of plagiarizing if not properly cited. The information that was new to me included the requirement of citing after paraphrasing. The process of paraphrasing is easy and the citations help in preserving the right of the original writer to be accredited for the information produced by him. In this regard, plagiarism and paraphrasing concepts are important and helpful. The lecture also helped in enhancing my understanding about the paraphrasing concept and the importance of citing the sources. The actions that may be taken in case of plagiarism being detected are severe. This lecture stresses on the possible consequences and maintains a level of commanding attitude to guide the students on providing plagiarism-free work.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Money is key to happiness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Money is key to happiness - Essay Example Apart from it being an essential, it also takes the form of joy. One who has it more than the basic requirement finds it a pleasure to have it. Money not only buys the necessities of life but also has the power of fulfilling ones deepest desires. But not everyone is fortunate enough to have the pennies from the heaven. In fact some cant even meet their basic needs. This is mainly because of the inequalities that have prevailed in our societies. The unequal distribution of income, which has a vital role to play in this regard, is directly effected by the prevailing socio-political and economic conditions within the country. C.W. Mills, in his book The Sociological Imagination, has emphasized on the aspect of raising the level of overall countrys prosperity. This, as he proposed, is achievable by making efforts to reach a full employment condition by balancing all the variables in such a way that every thing gets settled in an equilibrium state. Some also argue that the money isnt the actual aspect of bringing happiness to ones life. They say that having money to a greater extent might be the ultimate source of pleasure; however, it is to certain limit. This limit though varies from person to person, but after reaching this point the utility becomes nil. This demonstrates an important aspect I.e. money brings well-being and actually well being is the actual source of happiness. To reach a certain level of well being, only a certain amount of money might be enough, except for those who merely live for the greed of having more and more. Even several researches conducted and studies performed have yielded these results i.e. the people who have pursued for having more and more of money actually end up working late hours. Such people are going after extrinsic goals i.e. name and fame and often undergo depression, anxiety and dissatisfaction. On the contrary, people who are after the intrinsic goals such as having a healthy socia l circle are

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Criminal Justice Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 11

Criminal Justice - Assignment Example Another principle is that of unanimous consensus, which relates to the event that jurists come to terms with the rulings make public by a judge. For this case, they all consider the ruling as fair and one that bases on their constitution. Such a principle is called Ijima in the Arabic language and faces heated debate from contemporary scholars. Another principle is that of analogy, which means using reasoning and logic in relation to an established law, but in response to a new situation. An example of such is the fact that the law prohibits Muslims from drinking alcohol, which may apply to other forms of alcoholic drinks such as wine and whiskey. The same law also applies urf, which means customs, for which the jurists attach value to the preservation of customs known to the majority of the people. The jurists will, therefore, make their rulings basing on methods that will exalt the traditions of the religion as well as the cultures of the people. The rulings made also depend on the principle of individual reasoning, which gives the judges a chance of making decisions out of their reasoning. The chapter discusses the international criminal court that has its headquarters in The Hague. The court is a formulation of the Rome statute and deals with cases of crimes committed against humanity. The court is one of the few existent institutions that ensure that there is an observation of human rights by laying pressure on the leaders around the world to observe the respect for many. For instance, the court’s foundation was one of the efforts that the world made towards ending of the Second World War as well as the activities of mass killing of people. (Schmalleger 34). The development of cybercrime is one of the advancements in technology that have made crime a modernized activity. For instance, there are many types of such crimes, which range from fraud to terrorism and other types of criminal activities.  

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Role of the federal Goverment on the lives of the American Citizens Research Paper

Role of the federal Goverment on the lives of the American Citizens - Research Paper Example Era of Civil War or Reconstruction (1860-1877) The American Civil war occurred in USA during 1861-1865. Simultaneously, a period of Reconstruction began during the Civil War and lasted till 1877, which represented one of the most controversial periods in the history of the nation. During this time, the US Federal Government’s role expanded in safeguarding the rights of the US citizens and ensuring financial and racial justice to the cosmopolitan American society. During this time, the Federal Government formulated new legislation and enacted some amendments in the American constitution. These brought about a permanent change in the system of governance and altered the features of US citizenship. In an unprecedented move, the Federal Government took over the fundamental duty of enumerating and safeguarding the civil rights of the American citizens. In the Southern US States, the African-American men were accorded the right to cast their votes and assume a position of political authority. This was not allowed in the days prior to the Civil War. As a result, the African American community in Southern states along with the white population exercised their voting authority to bring the Republican Party to power. The Federal Government had also banned the slavery system in the country which generated a huge influence in the lives of the American citizens (Foner & Mahoney, 1997). The African-American people, most of whom had been slaves formerly liberated themselves from the control of the whites and established their independence in various spheres of life. The Progressive Period (1910s) The Progressive period during the 1910s, represents an important chapter in American history which heralded the entry of the American political system into a developed industrial society. The USA, as a country was experiencing a major change in its national and international priorities and the Progressives demanded that the Federal Government was required to play a more active role in this context. Both the US presidents at that time: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson were influenced positively by the ideas of the Progressive strand of thought. They presented the office of the US President as the sole representative of the national interests of the American citizens. They criticized the role of the US Congress declaring that the legislative body only pursued materialistic interests. Therefore, the executive and the legislative branches of the US Government assumed a clear-cut division during this period. (Rae, 1998, p.7-9) The Era of New Deal (1932-1936) The significance of the US Federal Government again expanded during the period of the New Deal in the decade of the 1930s. The New Deal changed the traditional connection among the national government, the local state governments and the American private sector. During the period of the New Deal, the Federal Government assumed more responsibility in governing the economy. The American economy

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Discussion Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 33

Discussion - Coursework Example In this regards, APNs play a key role in enhancing EBP adoption as it remains more as an ideal rather than a reality in many clinical care setting. In my unit, an advanced practice nurse is important in enhancing the adoption of evidence-based practice through facilitating the appropriate organizational culture and leadership. It is crucial for the unit to appoint leaders and staff that recognize and value evidence-based practice and research utilization in improving care provision. This can be further achieved by educating the staff on the importance of EBP utilization and possible ways of adoption. Facilitation and support in the process are also crucial. Thus, an advanced practice nurse has a role in ensuring that the necessary resources and conditions are available to attain success in the unit. This includes the provision of the appropriate time of practicing EBP and ensuring that the correct number of staff (staffing) are available in enhancing the process. Moreover, the advanced practice nurse has a role in enhancing further research in my unit to determine any additional factors that may influence or facilitate the adop tion of EBP. Advanced practice nurse have been noted to be on the frontline of utilizing EBP in the clinical setting in promoting the patients safety and their knowledge is crucial in promoting such practices among other teams such as my unit (Gerrish et al., 2012). Fagerstrà ¶m, L., & Glasberg, A. L. (2011). The first evaluation of the advanced practice nurse role in Finland - the perspective of nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 925–932. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01280.x Gerrish, K., Nolan, M., Mcdonnell, A., Tod, A., Kirshbaum, M., & Guillaume, L. (2012). Factors Influencing Advanced Practice Nurses’ Ability to Promote Evidence-Based Practice among Frontline Nurses. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 9, 30–39.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Reasons for Travel Essay Example for Free

Reasons for Travel Essay More and more people all over the world prefer to spend their holidays travelling. Rich or poor, old or young, they strive to leave the place where they live or work, and move to another spot of our planet — at least for two to four weeks a year. They travel to cities and towns, mountains and lakes, across oceans and seas. There are several reasons why the popularity of travel and tourism is growing. The first one is educational value of travelling. Man has always moved from one place to another in search of knowledge. Even now, in the age of technology and global communication, travelling to a different region or country can help discover new ideas, technologies and inventions. The best way of studying geography is travelling, the best way to help you master a foreign language is travelling, too. Moreover, a special kind of tourism has developed, called educational tourism when people travel to study a foreign language or to take up a course in one or several other subjects. The second reason why people travel is entertainment and rest. To see great buildings and natural wonders, listen to national music, get some knowledge about traditions and ways of different countries, taste new cuisine gives us new emotions, helps drive away the stress. Thirdly, there are special reasons. A lot of new types of travelling have appeared like ecotourism, educational tourism, sports tourism. A lot of people travel on business. Now, with the growth of international trade people have a lot of chances to do business with foreign partners, and they do it willingly. Some people have additional reasons to like travelling. When travelling, they do sports, or take care of their health, or get new contacts.

Biology Essay Example for Free

Biology Essay The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in eukaryotic cells is called the central dogma of biology. The role of RNA in protein synthesis is extremely important as protein synthesis could not occur without RNA. Three forms of RNA exist solely to create proteins. Through a process known as translation, RNA constructs the proteins necessary to sustain life. Spliceosomes Process pre-mRNA by splicing out intronic nucleic acids producing mRNA which is then translated to protein in ribosomes. Codons are three letter codes eg: AUG which codes for metheonine. Likewise there are many codons which code for different amino acids. Ribosomes bind to the mature mRNA at an AUG site and, for each codon (3 mRNA nucleic acids), a tRNA brings an amino acid for the translation, until the stop codon where the newly synthesized polypeptide is released in its primary structure. b) A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus that separates the processes of transcription and translation. Eukaryotic transcription occurs within the nucleus where DNA is packaged into nucleosomes nd higher order chromatin structures. Translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes. c) Rabies is an RNA virus, so it deviates from the central dogma by the fact that it is storing its genetic information in RNA instead of DNA. Eukaryotic cells use RNA as well, but only use it for an intermediate step when turning genetic information into protein. RNA is a much less stable molecule than DNA so it is not very good for holding the large amounts of DNA typically seen in Eukaryotic cells.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Examining Violence In Titus Andronicus Film Studies Essay

Examining Violence In Titus Andronicus Film Studies Essay Titus Andronicus is probably one of the most notorious and violent plays that the poet and playwright William Shakespeare has ever written. But even if this certain revenge play is unheard-of, there is still a lot of room for interpretation, even more when it is compared to a film version. One could for example comment on the several murders, the cannibalism, the rape, the dismemberment of human bodies and so on. Thus, revenge and violence are an important topic in this play and that is why I will analyze the presentation of violence in Julie Taymor s version of Titus Andronicus named Titus and released in 2000, and compare it to the representation of violence in the primary source. What I would like to demonstrate is that in the film violence is presented in a grotesque way. So the question is, whether the play offers a grotesque basis for Taymor s film or whether this is rather her own interpretation. In order to do that, I will first define the concept of the grotesque, including its connotations and effects on the reader or the audience. Furthermore, I will pick out scenes that support my argument. To demonstrate the grotesque in the film I will depict and interpret three key scenes. The first scene will be Lavinia s rape, in which Lavinia is assaulted by Chiron and Demetrius and gets her hands and tongue cut off afterwards. In addition, I will present a scene, where a messenger delivers Titus Andronicus his own hand and his sons heads. The last scene will deal with the situation, where Titus dresses up as a cook and serves Tamora, his most dreaded enemy, and others her two sons that he killed and cooked earlier. 1.2. Information on the Play and the Film In this section I would like to give information on the play and on the film in short terms. Titus Andronicus, which is a revenge play as already mentioned, was written by Shakespeare in the late 1580s and updated around 1593 . Sw rdh claims that there are still critics who are not sure whether the play was written by Shakespeare alone, since it is very different from his other plays. Julie Taymor s film Titus was released in 1999 and failed at the box office although it was highly praised by critics. In her adaptation the story is set in Ancient Rome but is mixed with modern elements, such as cars and firearms. In addition, in Taymor s framing of the Shakespearean play the boundary between reality and fiction is crossed several times . This crossing of boundaries is a hint that Taymor uses the filmic mode in her adaptation. According to Jorgens there are several modes that are used to measure the films relative distance from the language and conventions of the theatre . In Shakespeare on Film he introduces the theatrical, the realistic and the filmic mode. The theatrical mode looks like a theatre performance and involves the audience. There are a lot of medium and long shots used. The realistic mode, however, takes advantage of the camera s unique ability to show us things [] . This for example includes close-ups. The filmic mode is the mode of the film poet, whose works bear the same relation to the surfaces of reality that poems do to ordinary conversation . That means that reality becomes insignificant in the filmic mode and can be mixed up with elements of the unreal. In this mode many non-theatrical techniques which also include close-ups, long shots, several camera angle and movements. In Taymor s adaptation the reality is penetrated by dream sequences that Taymor herself calls Penny Arcade Nightmares or short P.A.N.s. Two examples of the P.A.N.s will be discussed later in this paper. According to Jorgens, the filmic mode makes it possible for the directors not only to present what Shakespeare literally has written in his plays but also the subtext , which reveals the character feelings and thoughts between the lines of a play. In this paper I will show that the grotesque is what is hidden between the lines in Shakespeare s play and what is made extremely visible in Taymor s film. 2. The Grotesque According to Thomson the concept of the grotesque changes from time to time and has gained importance only since the 1950s. However, the concept of the grotesque is old and was already used by poets as Dante and Ovid. The modern way to define the grotesque is to view it as a fundamentally ambivalent thing, as a violent clash of opposites [ ] Thomson argues that the grotesque is always connected to the comic and the terrifying at the same time and that there is problem to decide whether something is funny (not only in the sense of comic but also in the sense of strange) or horror. This leads to an unresolved problem and [the] special impact of the grotesque will be lacking if the conflict is resolved .Thus he offers the definition that the grotesque is the unresolved clash of incompatibles in work and response . Something grotesque can also be named bizarre, absurd and macabre, which I think is also very common in both, the film and the play. One of the lines Titus says in the scene where he asks Aaron to cut off his hand is: Lend me thy hand and I will give thee mine (3.1.189). He asks Aaron to help him to cut off his hand and tells him that he will give him his hand when Aaron is done. This is a macabre situation because the fact that Titus is having his hand lopped off is very gruesome, but the line he is saying is funny (in the sense of comic) and this evokes two opposite feelings namely disgust and amusement which is, according to Thomson, the usual but abnormal reaction to the grotesque. Harpham puts the definition of the grotesque in different words: when we use the word grotesque we record [ ] the sense that although our attention has been arrested, our understanding is unsatisfied . He also explains that the grotesque has always to do with the clash of two opposites, such as the known and the unknown or the perceived and the unperceived . Although he agrees with Thomson concerning the reaction towards the grotesque, he elaborates more on the fact that the grotesque also depends on our own perception and interpretation of a certain issue. He argues that these two points (among others) play a [ ] crucial role in creating the sense of the grotesque . Yates also points out that in Greek mythology a grotesque creature was something that had human and animalistic body parts. This could be a person with the head of a bat, a plant with the teeth of an animal [] and so on. In Taymor s film, this definition of the grotesque is used several times. The most persistent picture is that of Lavinia as a woman with the head of a doe. This comparison will be discussed later. In this paper, I will define a scene as grotesque if it matches Thomson s definition. That means that I will analyse whether a scene is funny and terrifying at the same time in order to be called grotesque. 3. The Original Titus Andronicus and Taymor s Adaptation 3.1. Scene 1: Lavinia s Rape 3.1.1. The Main Scene The scene starts with Tamora s sons entering with the ravished Lavinia in 2.4.1 in the play and their hysteric laughter in 63:05 min in the film, ending at line 55 and at 66:19 min. This scene will be analyzed concerning camera movements, angles and framing, because this is very important for the interpretation of this scene. This scene was chosen as one of the grotesque scenes because Lavinia is presented in a very grotesque way. It is not only her looks but also the use of the camera and the music that create this impression. All of these elements will be explained in this chapter. The rape scene begins with an extreme long shot of the two brothers laughing and moving around Lavinia, who is only shown from the back, being obviously filmed after the rape and mutilation. It is filmed from a high angle and creates the image that the audience sees the scene from her point of view. There is also a hand-held camera used, which moves quickly and follows the two men (or rather boys) causing a jerky, ragged effect , which is very often used in the horror genre. In addition, the fact that Lavinia is only seen from behind arouses the feeling that something very uncomfortable is following. When Lavinia is finally seen from front view, a canted angle, suggest[ing] imbalance , and a long shot are used, so that Lavinia s whole body and her surroundings can be recognized. She starts moving, her face wreathing in pain. This adds to the grotesque impression of the whole scene. When Chiron and Demetrius leave we can see Marcus walking through the forest. As he sees Lavinia, he starts walking towards her. Here, a medium shot is used and the scene is filmed on eye level. The camera movement can be described as a reverse dolly shot, which just follows the character that is filmed slowly and steadily. The camera starts zooming closer to Lavinia and when she opens her mouth, there is a medium shot showing her upper part of the body, which is followed by a close-up at Marcus s face. This whole second part of the scene with Marcus and Lavinia is shot at eye level. This is a contrast to the first part where Lavinia is filmed with Tamora s sons. It creates the impression that Marcus and Lavinia are at the same level. Marcus is devastated and pities Lavinia and you can see how much he loves his niece, so there is no imbalance or violence at all. Tamora s sons, however, hurt Lavinia and make fun of her afterwards. Moreover, the steady movements of the camera in the second part of the scene and the fast camera movements in the first part of the scene also aggravate this effect. In the film version, a lot of lines from the play have been left out in this scene. However, the words that Marcus says in the play are shown by the actors through facial expressions and movements of the body. In the play he says: Alas, a crimson river of warm blood [] Doth rise and fall between thy rosed lips (2.3.22-2.3.24). These lines and the following monologue are left out in the film. But since Lavinia opens her mouth and the audience can actually see the blood, it is not necessary for Marcus to repeat that. The whole monologue where he regrets what happened to Lavinia is also made superfluous through the close-up at his face, which already has been described. At this moment, his facial expression demonstrates his distress and words are not necessary. Another important fact in this scene is that Lavinia is compared to a tree. Marcus says in the play: Speak gentle niece, what stern ungentle hands Hath lopped and hewed and made thy body bare Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments [ ] (2.3.16-2.3.19) Here, Marcus uses a lot of expressions that have to do with wood and wood processing, which are branches , lopped and hewed , thus comparing her body to a tree. When he finds Lavinia in the film version, branches have been plugged into her stumps. This creates a very grotesque impression. It is funny in the sense of strange, because it is a very uncommon picture and it is terrifying at the same time, if one thinks about the pain that Lavinia must feel at this moment. Although this is not explicitly mentioned in the primary source, one could say that the play provides a basis for Taymor s interpretation because of the several comparisons to wood. Taymor also sets the scene that is described here in a place that reminds of a dead wood, because there are dead, black trees and stubs everywhere, surrounded by a lot of mud. In this scene Lavinia is also standing on a stub, which adds even more to Marcus s comparison of her as a tree, and her movements remind of a thin tree that is swaying in the wind. What is also worth mentioning is that earlier in the film, in the scene where Chiron and Demetrius kill Lavinia s husband Bassanius in front of her, the scene is set in a verdant forest. But after her rape the forest is dead, which could also be an allusion to the destruction of Lavinia and her chastity. Another hint that Lavinia s rape should be presented in a grotesque way is that fact that the incident that happened to her is often compared to Philomela s story. Harpham argues that the grotesque can also be found in the work of the Roman poet Ovid. Interestingly enough, Ovid s work is also used very often as a metaphor in Shakespeare s play. Marcus says later in the scene about his niece: A craftier Tereus, cousin, hast thou met, And he hath cut those pretty fingers off, That could have better sewed than Philomel. (2.3.41-2.3.43) Here, he compares Lavinia to Ovid s Philomela who is raped by King Tereus of Thrace and gets her tongue chopped off, as well. That comparison establishes a connection between the grotesque scene in Taymor s film and Shakespeare s play. However, according to Cartelli and Rowe, Taymor does not present Lavinia as Philomela but as Daphne, who is also one of the protagonists of Ovid s poems. Daphne was like Lavinia a chaste virgin. She was persecuted by Apollo who was madly in love with her and so she asked her father Peneus, a river god, to change her shape in order to stop Apollo. Consequently, her father turned Daphne into a tree. The picture of Lavinia as Daphne is even more strengthened when Young Lucius brings her wooden hands to replace hers. Another important argument is that Lavinia is constantly compared to an animal. In the scene where Aaron talks Chiron and Demetrius into raping Lavinia she is very often referred to as a doe. Aaron even says: And strike her home by force, if not by words (1.1.618). According to the notes of this edition the word striking was used as a technical term for killing or wounding a deer . In Taymor s film, there is a P.A.N. that reflects this allusion, which will be discussed later in this chapter. Thus, Lavinia is often compared to animals and to trees, but she is never regarded as a woman. Hanson argues that female composite figures are seen as sexual animals in Greek mythology. Lavinia is reduced to a sex symbol (as would be called nowadays). Finally, one could say that Lavinia s rape scene which is depicted in a very grotesque way in the film is not explicitly grotesque in the play. However, Shakespeare provides a basis for the grotesque scene, by comparing Lavinia to a tree and to Philomela, whose story was perceived as grotesque, as well and by actually having her hands and tongue lopped off. 3.2.2. Additional Scene: Lavinia as doe woman This scene cannot be found explicitly in Shakespeare s play. However, it is important for the scene that was described above and adds crucial information for the picture of Lavinia in the play. This very short scene is also one of the already mentioned Penny Arcade Nightmares . It starts at 93:25 min and end at 94:15 min. Starks argues that [t]he P.A.N.s, which occur at strategic moments throughout Titus, [ ] further interrogate the act of viewing horror . She adds that they are supposed to mix reality and imagination. Usually, in P.A.N. the characters try to reprocess something that has happened to them. But there is also always a nightmare element in these P.A.N.s. This P.A.N. happens parallel to the action in the play. It is the moment where Lavinia writes down the names of Chiron and Demetrius in the sand. The stage directions tell us that [s]he takes [a] staff in her mouth, and guides it with her stumps, and writes (4.1.76). In the film the staff reminds of a phallic symbol (Lavinia is reduced to a sex symbol again) and the P.A.N. takes place while she writes. At the beginning she can be seen with the head of a doe on her head and with tigers jumping from both sides at her. There is a long shot used and the whole scene is shown in slow motion. The doe usually connected to innocence and weakness and one must involuntarily think of Walt Disney s Bambi. The tigers however are connected to strength and power. This shows that poor Lavinia had no chance to protect herself from the two brothers. The music in the background sounds psychedelic and is accompanied by Lavinia s grunts. The colours are mainly blue and black except for her white dress. Suddenly Lavinia looks scared and there are close-ups of her face and the faces of Chiron and Demetrius. The last shot shows Lavinia standing on a pedestal in a breeze in her white dress which reminds very much of Marilyn Monroe, who was a sex symbol in the 1950s. This comparison underlines the idea that Lavinia is reduced constantly to an object of desire in the play and in the film. This P.A.N. shows us what cannot be seen in the main scene. We can see how much Lavinia must have suffered and as Taymor puts it a bolt of electric shock seems to run through [Lavinia s] body . However, the comparison to Marilyn Monroe in that situation and the fast cuts that are put together in the P.A.N. create a very grotesque image. According to Cartelli and Rowe the arrangements in this scene are the same as in all the other P.A.N.s. The victim stands in the middle and is attacked from the left and the right side. Stark also connects the shot where Lavinia can be seen standing on a pedestal to the first shot after her rape. The idea is basically the same: Lavinia is standing on a stump, wearing a white dress in a breeze. In this scene she seems to be the one who is put above all of the others but she is also the one who is humiliated in the worst way. However, the two shots evoke completely different feelings. After her rape the audiences is shocked by that shot and we pity Lavinia. But in the second shot the audience looks at her as an appealing woman, who is teasing with her movements, which adds a grotesque element to the whole Lavinia theme in the film. But, from our point of view her representation in the whole play is grotesque as well because of her constantly reduced role. 3.2. Scene 2: Titus and many severed body parts This scene will deal with Titus cutting off his hand with the aid of Aaron in order to trade it for the live of his sons. But Aaron tricks him and so, Titus only gets the heads of his two sons and his own hand at the end. In the play this scene starts in 3.1.151 and ends with line 206, going on from 3.1.235 until line 241. In the film the scene starts at 75:19 min, goes on until 78:00 min and continues from 80:19 min to 84:21 min. The part in between is not connected closely to the scene and will be left out. In this scene hands play again an important role. Lavinia loses her hands after the rape and cannot be an independent person anymore. In this scene the meaning of hands becomes even more evident. According to Katherine Rowe the hand is perceived as a separate part of the body, which controls the material world. She argues that the hand is [ ] the body part most often associated with intentional, effective action [ ] . Even Aristotle discussed the importance of hands and claimed that the hand is the instrument of instruments . According to Rowe, the Greek philosopher Galen continued Aristotle s thought and asserted that the hand not only is the supreme instrument but also a tool that uses tools . In the play there are often allusions made to the hand and it is associated with many different adjectives and attributes. It is called victorious, noble, idle and so on. What is also interesting is that the hand is the one that gets credited for several deeds. In this scene for example Lucius says to his father: Stay father, for that noble hand of thine That hath thrown down so many enemies Shall not be sent. (3.1.163-3.1.165) Thus, it is the ultimate punishment to lose a hand and turn into a person, who cannot be independent anymore. But still, Titus does not hesitate to give his hand for his sons lives, even though the thought of cutting it off must be horrible. This is the part of the scene, which fulfils the criterion of being terrifying in order to be grotesque. The funny part (this time in the sense of comic) is fulfilled by what is said by Titus. He tells Aaron: Lend me thy hand and I will give thee mine (3.1.188) Titus is actually making a joke in this very serious, potentially life-threatening situation. This creates an image of something grotesque and this is also how Taymor presents the scene in her film. This part of the scene is set in a kitchen. Here, the grotesque is very explicit, because Titus enters the kitchen with Aaron, takes away the cook s carving board, which she just used to chop vegetables, lays down his hand and lets him cut it off with a cleaver. It is a comic situation because the severed hand looks unreal as if it is elastic and because there is no blood at all, but still the thought of the pain that one must suffer getting his hand lopped off and Titus s facial expression, create a feeling of horror, which is supported by a close-up at Titus s face. The use of the camera and the filming techniques do not have as much importance in this scene as in the scene discussed in chapter 3.1. However, it is noticeable that Aaron talks directly to the camera several times, which is called a face-on tracking shot. This creates the effect that he is directly addressing the audience and he usually does that, when he is supposed to say something aside in the stage directions of the play. However, what is more important is the use of music in this scene. When Aaron and Titus walk to the kitchen to cut Titus s hand off, a lot of trumpets, horns and string players can be heard. The music sounds aggressive, frightening and loud and fits to the determined walk of the two characters and their speed. When Aaron leaves the kitchen with the hand and starts talking to the camera, the music changes and jazzy sounds can be heard. This again underlines the words that are said and helps turning the mood from frightening to comic. The second part of the scene is even more grotesque, because Taymor once again mixes modern elements with those from the Roman Empire. Guneratne puts it in the following words: [ ] a derelict biker-clown pulls a wagon functioning as a mobile arcade [ ] and, after dancing grotesquely about and manically promoting his show like a demented carny barker, he unveils the severed heads of Titus s two sons and the hand Titus severed to ransom them . This scene is described as a P.A.N. by Taymor herself. According to Cartelli and Rowe The penny arcade evokes the carnivalesque atmosphere of a fair or beachside entertainment zone given over to casual meandering among games of chance, fortune tellers, tattoo parlo[u]rs, and overstuffed displays of cheap prizes and merchandise . This quote implies that what you usually can see in such a circumstance is meaningless and just used as entertainment, but seeing the heads of one s own two sons has actually nothing to do with entertainment and cheap prizes , which add to the grotesque effect. Cartelli and Rowe continue that the P.A.N.s also demonstrate nightmare and let the characters relive what has happened to them before. However, the P.A.N described here is different, since it reflects a situation that is actually going on and not just a dream of one of the characters: This still life P.A.N. signals the turn in the play where the nightmares are now reality and madness can be confused with sanity [] . To underline the grotesque picture of the messenger Taymor also changes his character. In the play he seems to be compassionate, talking to Andronicus about his father s death. But in the film, he seems to be uninterested in what he is saying, as if he is quoting something he, himself, has no stake in . The way he delivers his massage supports the grotesque in the film. However, in this short part Taymor did not take the play as a basis for her interpretation. In this whole scene the comic element is presented at first by the clown and the little girl. The music, that is played, sounds like circus music and stops abruptly as the clown pulls up the roller shutter. The effect is that the audience is shocked and terrified, since the two heads of the sons, which look fairly unreal and disgusting, swimming in a red fluid, put in a dirty glass cover, are finally visible for everyone. This is already very grotesque but it becomes even more grotesque when Titus asks Lavinia to take his dead, severed hand in her badly injured mouth. The picture of the raped and mutilated girl with the dishevelled hair and the hand in her mouth makes her look like a dog, which is a very disturbing thought. Finally, one could say that this is also a scene, where the play offers a grotesque basis for Taymor s version. Marcus suggests that Titus should rant but instead of ranting Titus starts laughing. This is a reaction, which is not expected by the reader and turns the situation into something uncommon. In addition, the moment where Lavinia shall take her father s hand and carry it in her mouth is really happening in the play and Taymor takes Titus s request literally. The effect of this scene is stronger in the film than in the play, because watching Lavinia taking the hand is much more disturbing than reading it. 3.3. Scene 3: Titus, the Cook The last scene that will be discussed in this paper starts in 5.3.26 and ends with line 65. In the film the scene goes from 138:30 min to 144:30 min. In this scene, the grotesque can be found everywhere. It is grotesque how the cakes containing the two dead sons are presented. It is grotesque how Titus kills his own daughter and how all of the protagonists are stabbed with a knife, a spoon and a candleholder. The music, the camera angles and filming techniques everything in this scene seems grotesque. This analysis will begin with the filming techniques. Directly at the beginning of the scene there is a close-up at the two pies that Titus made out of Chiron s and Demetrius bodies, cooling down on a windowsill. There is vivid, friendly, jazzy music playing in the background and the curtains are moving slowly because of the wind. This picture evokes the feeling that some lovely housewife who lives in a cosy home, made these delicious looking pies for her family. But of course, this is not the case and the knowledge of the two dead human beings inside that pies cause feelings of disgust and agitation. As soon as the guests including Tamora, Saturnius, Lucius, Marcus and others are seated Titus brings in one of the pies and cuts it. The first peace is for Tamora and inside the pie looks bloody and raw, once again creating disgust. The whole scene is shot at eye level and most frequently there are medium shots and close-ups used to show the characters. However, when everyone starts eating there are several extreme close-ups at their mouths chewing with pieces of the pie sticking between their teeth. Wilson argues that these kinds of shots are supposed to cause dramatic effect . Looking at these people chewing raises the feeling of disgust even more. What is also remarkable is the use of the camera in the very last seconds of the scene. When Lucius puts a spoon in Saturnius mouth and feeds it into him until he suffocates, the scene is suddenly shown in slow motion and finally comes to a complete stop. Suddenly, Lucius is the only one that can move. He spits at Saturnius and shoots him afterwards. Finally, the scene is over and the rest of the characters are standing in the Coliseum. My suggestion is that these last seconds are used in order to point out Lucius s role. He is the only child of Titus who all in all lost one daughter and 23 sons that is still alive. Lucius makes not only an end to the scene but also to the whole violence and revenge, and becomes the new Emperor afterwards. Music and sounds in general are also very important in this scene. They underline the action in the film and support the use of the camera. When the very beautifully looking Lavinia enters the room the music changes and there is a quite orchestra in the background. As soon as Titus says that she must die it starts getting louder and when he breaks her neck, which is highlighted by a creaky sound, the music gets very loud and dramatic. A few seconds later there is again a change. When Titus stabs Tamora the soft music changes after a short moment and becomes aggressive. Now, rock music is used and is played until the ends of the scene. The rock music underlines the chaos that is breaking out at this moment and since everything goes very fast from there adds to the perplexity that the audience experiences after the end of the scene. Here, Lavinia is once more reduced to an animal. The way her father breaks her neck reminds more of wounded sparrow then of a woman or even a child. Again, Lavinia is compared to a historical figure. Titus alludes to Virginius who killed his daughter Virginia because she was deflowered (5.3.38). What is shocking is that in this scene he kills Lavinia not because of her pain or shame but because he cannot bear looking at her and because he has already cried so much because of her pain. As always Lavinia is not regarded as a woman but as something that is there to serve men. An interesting point in this scene is the connection of the character Titus to Hopkins s role as Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs. In this film Hopkins played a cannibal and in Titus he once again turns into one, when he serves the cakes. This adds a comic element and once again strengthens the grotesque impression of the whole scene. Cartelli and Rowe also observe that Hopkins sucks in his spit before slitting Chiron and Demetrius s throats , which is also usually connected to his role a Lecter and which happens shortly before the scene described here. Starks connects this last scene to the opening scene of the film and calls it a grotesque parody of the opening frame of Young Lucius (Osheen Jones) playing with ketchup-blood on the kitchen table [] . In the first scene of the film a boy can be seen playing with toy soldiers and other figures in a kitchen, wearing a paper bag on his head. Hinz describes the setting as a typical American kitchen of the 1950s and read the paper bag as a symbol for the thin wall between real and imagined violence . The picture of the boy with the paper bag on his head is comic but disturbing considering his violent game and thus grotesque. Young Lucius is a character who really exists in the play but in Taymor s adaptation his role is taken by a boy who acts as the audience. He appears in every scene described in this paper and has influence on the film. In this scene, or rather after this scene and after his father being elected as the new Emperor, Lucius leaves the Coliseum with Aaron s and Tamora s baby on his arm, which, according to Hinz, hints at the end of violence between the Romans and the Goths. 4. Conclusion In this term paper it has been shown that violence is treated as something grotesque in Taymor s adaptations of Titus Andronicus. First of all, the term the grotesque has been defined and afterwards three scenes were chosen from the film and interpreted. Whether a scene is grotesque or not has been analysed according to Thomson s criteria. Finally the film scenes have been compared to the corresponding scenes in the play. Camera angles, camera movements, the gestures of the characters, the music and of course the text is what was taken into consideration during the analysis of the film. What has been pointed out in this paper is that the play offers a grotesque basis for Taymor s interpretation. It was not only presented very explicitly through the actions of the characters but also hinted at by the stage directions, by the actual text (e.g. through the use of metaphors and allusions to Greek mythology) and t

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Life in the American Revolution :: Essays on American Revolution

On January 14, 1741, Benedict Arnold was born in Norwich, Connecticut. (B Arnold) Arnold’s father, also named Benedict, had a drinking problem and his mother Hannah often worried. (B Arnold) Arnold received his schooling at Canterbury. (B Arnold) While away at school, a few of Arnold’s siblings passed away from Yellow Fever. (B Arnold) Arnold was a troublesome kid that would try just about anything. (B Arnold) As a rebellious 14-year-old boy, he ran away from home to fight in the French and Indian War. (B Arnold) Later, Benedict Arnold deserted and returned home through the wilderness alone to work with his cousins. (B Arnold) The army had excused him without penalty because of his tender, young age. In 1762, when Benedict was just twenty-one years old, he went to New Haven, Connecticut where he managed a book and drug store and carried on trade with the West Indies. (B Arnold) In 1767, he married Margaret Mansfield, a daughter of a sheriff of New Haven County. (B Arnol d) They had three sons together. (B Arnold) When the Revolutionary War was just beginning to break out, Benedict Arnold became a prosperous ship owner, merchant, and trader. (Lake Champlain) Within days, Arnold became very interested in the war once again and joined the American Army. All of the battles Arnold commanded over showed immense courage and bravery, but he was soon known as America’s greatest traitor due to his betrayal of the American’s. As the Revolutionary War broke out, Benedict Arnold decided to volunteer to head over 1,000 men up to Maine. (Lake Champlain) He asked for additional men from his companies to join the army. Arnold then became a captain in the Connecticut Militia. General George Washington had his favorites, which Arnold was among the very few. (Macks 118) So, Benedict Arnold was sent on a infernal 500 mile march to Maine by Washington also known as "The Rock". (Macks 72, 118) There, he met up with General Richard Montgomery. (Mac ks 72) The relentless Benedict Arnold and only about fifty percent of his original soldiers made it to the St. Lawrence River where they met up with General Montgomery. (Macks 72) Their plan was to attack the British Army by surprise in Quebec City, Canada. (Lake Champlain and Macks 72) Both Montgomery and Arnold arranged to start on the lofty mountain sides of Quebec. (Macks 72) Arnold and his soldiers found themselves trapped by the British.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Doctor Faustus Essays: Psychoanalytical, Feministic, and Cultural Persp

Psychoanalytical, Feministic, and Cultural Perspectives in Dr. Faustus Christopher Marlowe's acclaimed Doctor Faustus uses many rhetorical methods to breathe life into the plot and story line. There are obviously psychoanalytical methods used, as well as certain aspects of the feministic method, somewhat less evident, but no less important are the cultural background issues that come into play. These three methods help to smooth the edges and round out the corners of this complex journey into the fictitious life of a highly educated man who appears to have anything he would need. Psychoanalytically speaking, the battles between the id and superego of Dr. Faustus, cause severe turmoil in his moral conscience. This is evident in the text by the battery of the two angels, one holy and the other evil. He even consciously battles with his id, when he cries out, "O Christ, my savior, my savior! Help to save distressed Faustus' soul." (P. 48, lines89-90) Faustus often becomes offensive with Meph...

Assemble & Associate :: essays research papers

Assemble and Associate The first amendment of the Constitution is one of the most fundamental and essential appendages to the C onstitution that statesmen could ever have made. It basically provides the way and means for any citizen of the United States to speak freely, worship freely, assemble with whomever they want, and complain to the government. One of the most important of those freedoms however, is the right of association. Association protects the rights of persons to enter into relationships with one another unhampered by intrusive governmental regulation. More specifically expressive association protects the right to associate with others in pursuit of a wide variety of political, social, economic, educational, religious, and cultural ends. The right to associate, being derived from the provisions of free speech and assembly, is fundamental to all private associations so that they might have the right to their own standards for membership and leadership. The Boy Scouts of America has been a private organization with the mission and chartered purpose of providing character-building experiences for young people since its founding in 1910. The organization’s Oath states, â€Å"On my honor I will do my best †¦ to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.† It is a scout’s duty to uphold this oath and live by the scout law. In April of 2000 the Boy Scouts of America’s rights to establish its own standards of membership and continue to instill the values of the Scout Oath and Law into the scouts were challenged. An individual's position as assistant scoutmaster of a New Jersey troop was revoked after a division of the Boy Scouts learned that the individual was an avowed homosexual and gay rights activist. The assistant scoutmaster filed suit in the New Jersey Superior Court, and alleged, among other matters, that the Boy Scouts had violated a state law prohibiting discrimination in places of public accommodation on the basis of sexual orientation. The Boy Scouts held that this violated their First Amendment right of expressive association. The Boy Scouts of America believe an avowed homosexual is not a role model for the values espoused in the Scout Oath and Law. The right of association is utterly the most important principle in the issue of the Boy Scouts of America and their right to be selective in their requirements of leadership. The Boy Scouts have the right to assemble with whomever they choose.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Child Abuse Essay

â€Å"What is child abuse? The term â€Å"child abuse† can be defined as any behavior directed toward a child by a parent, guardian, caregiver, other family member, or other adult, that endangers or impairs a child’s physical or emotional health and development† (National 1). Factors which often contribute to child abuse are alcohol and substance abuse, lack of parenting skills, economic difficulties or poverty, domestic violence and previous victimization (National 1). The consequences of abuse may be mild or severe; disappear after a short period or last a lifetime; and affect the child physically, psychologically, behaviorally, or in some combination of all three ways (Gateway 1). Though all traumatic not all child abuse is the same, there are four different categories that child abuse is classified into, neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Though all are different they all share the dangerous possibilities of having the abused child or children become an abuser themselves in the future. Neglect is the most common form of child abuse, with 59% of the substantiated reports of maltreatment classified as neglect in 2007 (USDHHS 2009). Neglect is very common because it is the simplest form of child abuse, being defined as a pattern of failing to provide for a child’s basic needs, whether it be adequate food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision (Smith and Segal 1). There are many ways to spot neglect in a child like being poorly clothed, looking malnourished, lack of attendance in school, and having medical needs not met or up to date. With neglect being the most common form of abuse among children it is trailed fairly close with physical abuse which is also a highly common form of child abuse. Physical abuse is defined as follows: â€Å"Physical abuse involves physical harm or injury to the child. It may be the result of a deliberate attempt to hurt the child, but not always. It can also result from severe discipline, such as using a belt on a child, or physical punishment that is inappropriate to the child’s age or physical condition. Many physically abusive parents and caregivers insist that their actions are simply forms of discipline—ways to make children learn to behave. But there is a big difference between using physical punishment to discipline and physical abuse. The point of disciplining children is to teach them right from wrong, not to make them live in fear† (Smith and Segal 1). Then comes sexual abuse as yet another form of child abuse. â€Å"Every 2 minutes, someone in the U. S. is sexually assaulted† (RAINN 1). This statistic shows the prevalence in sexual abuse in the United States, though not as common in children as in adults, sexual abuse still affects 44 percent of people under the age of 18 (RAINN 1). This is still almost half of rapes accounted for by a group largely still considered children themselves. Sexual child abuse is defined as: â€Å"Incest, sexual molestation, rape, sodomy, child pornography, exhibitionism and exploitation are terms most often used when describing child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse can be physical — including genital or oral stimulation, fondling and intercourse; non-physical — including indecent exposure, obscene phone calls or â€Å"peeping toms†; and/ or violent — as in rape or other forms of sexually violent behavior† (National 1). Also another scary effect of being sexually abused is that a large percentage of those who sexually abuse children were themselves victims of sexual abuse as children (National 1). Meaning that being sexually abused as a child can possibly lead to future sexual abuse towards another child or children. The final form of child abuse is emotional abuse. This is the least common form of child abuse just because of the fact that it is so hard to prove even though it might be just as likely as the other three forms of abuse. Emotional abuse occurs when a child is verbally assaulted and the withheld of positive emotional support (National 1). Much thought has gone into the idea that â€Å"the abused become abusers† its only logical to think that abuse would be a continuing cycle. â€Å"Abusive parents often have experienced abuse during their own childhoods. It is estimated approximately one-third of abused and neglected children will eventually victimize their own children† (Gateway 1). A victim of abuse is likely to become an abuser due to biological factors, power struggles, and a need to heal. The biggest reason this takes place is because of biological means. This means that when abuse happens it changes something chemically in your body. This was shown when an experiment was done on monkeys who abuse their offspring: â€Å"In earlier research on abuse of infant monkeys, Maestripieri and his colleagues studied females that were switched at birth between abusive and non-abusive mothers. That research showed that the offspring of non-abusive mothers were likely to become abusive themselves if they were raised by abusive mothers† (Nauert 1). After this experiment was done a physical sample was taken from the monkey’s brain and the following results were yielded: â€Å"The team found that infants who became abusive as adults had about 10 to 20 percent less serotonin than did infants who did not become abusive as parents or infants who were not exposed to maternal abuse. The reduced level of serotonin remained constant into adulthood† (Nauert 1). The research also showed that abused females who became abusive mothers in adulthood had lower serotonin in their brains than abused females who did not become abusive parents (Neuert 1). With monkeys and humans having almost the exact same genetic makeup and brain structure it can be inferred that the results would be highly favorable to stay the same had the same test been done on a human being. Someone that was abused as a child might also seek power as It is a search for power and control by becoming an abuser, someone who has been abused can play the role of the more powerful person in the relationship, in an attempt to overcome the powerlessness they felt when they were being abused (Hartney 1). This power they seek gives them the false reality that once they attain it, they will compensate for the power they lost as a child when being abused. But when they find that it doesn’t fill the hole for them they will continue to be abusers themselves to try and compensate creating a never ending search for compensation thus continued abuse toward others. People who have been abused carry a lot of anger about what happened to them, and abusing others can be a way to express that anger (Hartney 1). This further shows an abused person’s need for an outlet for the anger cause by their abuse, usually ending with them continuing the cycle of abuse. It is an attempt to heal by becoming an abuser, a victim of childhood abuse can try to undo the abuse by taking the opposite, seemingly more powerful position. By engaging in a relationship with another abuser, they can try to re-live the relationship with their original abuser in the hope that they can get it right this time (Hartney 1). The abused person from the past can also take the approach of trying to relive the abuse they suffered as a child to try and heal themselves by re enacting the act possibly putting themselves in the position of control. â€Å"Immaturity, the absence of parenting preparation skills, and a lack of understanding of child development often result in the creation of unrealistic expectations for a child’s behavior. When the child fails to meet these expectations, frustration on the part of the parent may erupt in anger toward the child† (Hartney 1). hey can also try to heal themselves by seeking out abuse again because its the only way the know how to feel intimate. With the facts out there it can be reasonably assumed that it is highly likely for a previously abused person to have a high chance to become an abuser themselves, and this can be proven by biological means, taking back power, and trying to relive their abuse in an attempt to heal themselves.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

New Jersey corrections officer

capital of Minnesota Leaders has been a in the raw Jersey incision of department of corrections officeholder (NJDCO) for oer ten years. As a NJDCO, capital of Minnesotas role and province is to ensure the custody, safety and c argon of roughshod offenders confined in state correctional facilities ( It is his duty to ensure the safety and upbeat of the staff and inmate population, assist in the rehabilitative efforts for those incarcerated individuals re deflecting to the community and assist public support for the ope dimensionn and objectives of the plane section of Corrections ( the age of 25, capital of Minnesota began his c arer with the Department of Corrections. Before he became a full-fledge corrections office, he had to go through a display mould. The pre-employment screening is a four phase process that includes filling f exclusively out an application, taking a video test, completing a calculating mac hine background assessment, a general and intensive background check, a drug test, a written psych testing, a medical exam and a psych interview. If an interviewee models through the screening successfully, near comes a 14 week discipline course at the academy and and so an on the melodic phrase test detail ( The pre-employment screening is vigorous to discourage those who are non serious about fashioning the Department of Corrections their career of choice. superstar time capital of Minnesota successfully completed his screening, his on the bloodline test period began in a youth facility. His eyes were candid to the harsh realities of his position when he was attacked by a 15 year-old inmate. Although, he was non seriously hurt, his perspective mixed bagd. capital of Minnesota cognise that to do his product line to the best of his major power and to protect himself and his co-workers, he had to do by each(prenominal) inmates as danger ous, no matter what their age. throughout the years, the dangers associated with his career choice were clearly run throughn. NJDOCs are often put in a variety of sticky situations.The ratio of incumbents to inmates is 1 to 3 ( Since they are out-numbered, a NJDOCs goal is to stop potenti entirelyy harmful situations before they glide by. Paul intimate many valucapable techniques in his psychological science classes during his 14-week training process. ( It is so much easier to foresee situations from happening than to try to de-escalate a situation once it has started.Paul has embed the closely challenging aspect of cosmos a NJDCO is the personal standard inevitable. An NJDCO mustiness begin a higher sink of standards when the bars clang shut. A periodic part of the trading includes being taunted, called out of your name, and possibly attacked. Through all this, a NJDCO cannot retaliate. It is not the corr ection military military officers place to arise angry or respond in kind. They must turn away when an inmate is purposely arduous to rile them. If an officer hurts an inmate or is caught abusing their authority, they result be fired. The duty of a NJDCO is to uphold the rectitudes of the penal code and treat inmates with respect.NJDCOs spend time at deal forty hours a week with inmates. Officers get to know the inmates extremely well and see sternlyihoodts of the human psyche many volume are unaware of. 40% of NJDOC offenders were convicted of a violent offense such as homicide, wakenual assault, aggravated or naive assault, robbery, kidnapping and opposite personal offenses (terrorist threats, coercion, theft from a person, death by elevator car and negligent manslaughter) ( with inmates intimately is no walk in the park. Officer relationships with inmates carry gone from one extreme to another. approximately officers turn in been charged with bringing inmates fateful and others pick up been charged with assault on an inmate. The key to survival is finding the remainder living in the middle is an NJDCO officers way.The department of corrections has a code of ethics that must be adhered to if an officer is to last on the job. It is prerequisite to hold in confidence all information gained on the job, no gifts or services can be evaluate from inmates or family members and no personal or financial gain is to be make that is in conflict with duties or will impair objectivity or sagaciousness ( To sum it up, be honest and do your job. Unfortunately, for around, thats easier said than done.The Department of Corrections has a Hearing Appeals Section and an administrative Law/Civil Employment judicial proceeding Section that handles employee discipline/grievances and resolves skids against employees ( Whenever a corrections officer is facing an et hical issue, model is provided so that the officers rights are not violated.Of course, there are circumstantial laws correction officers must obey and if they knowingly exceed the extent of their power and then they can face a evaluate and possibly go to jail. The added try on of the job decr serenitys the correction officers conduct span to 59 years ( Therefore, it is necessary to have your guard up forever if you want to make wise choices, get through the workday with your personal recognise intact and live longer than what some researchers have predicted.The nisus of the job has caused Paul to think thought about travel into a different area of law enforcement besides this might require more than training and schooling. As a corrections officer, his high school diploma was all he needed, along with being a US citizen, having a valid impertinently Jersey drivers license, verbalise English well and being able to handle the job physically and psychologi cally. Although he took extra courses during training, he does not trust that will be enough for a tape transport to a different department. Paul has not examined the move and after an curiously hard day with the inmates, he promises himself that he will.Prolonged finish up with inmates is the main exit between NJDCO positions and other law enforcement positions. Policemen and detectives, for example, investigate crimes and track criminals. They whitethorn have to face the individuals in court, only once they are locked up, their contact with the criminal is over. A NJDCOs contact with the criminal begins after the other law enforcement officers contact has ended and that contact lasts as long as the inmates sentence.For the branch few years of his career, Paul lay out fulfillment on his job. He is circumstances his state, providing a needed assistance, protecting the residents of sweet Jersey and helping his fellow officers. Now, he cant say that. The stress of not knowi ng what will happen from day to day is extremely hard and the last few years have been a struggle. The constant hassle of the job has become overwhelming and is causing a strain on his marriage of 2 years. The concomitant that he cannot express why he dissatisfied and he does not want to talk about the job increases to the couples frustration.Add the fact that he cannot talk about secret information and the situation gets dangerous. Communication between Paul and his wife has gone from severeness to worse. Because they are planning to have children, Paul recently transferred from the youth facility to a minimum security prison. They are hoping this change will decrease his stress and ease the strain in their relationship. Paul believes the transfer will make a puffy difference in his attitude and stress level, increasing his job satisfaction.In advanced Jersey, the Department of Corrections is made up of minimum, medium and maximum-security prisons. With 14 major institutions, i ncluding 8 male prisons, 3 youth facilities, 1 female prison, and one prison for sex offenders, there were plenty of facilities for Paul to read from. Moving to a maximum-security prison would have meant an increase in pay but for Paul, added money would have brought added stress. This wasnt the case when Pauls career began but today, the salary for a corrections officer is $43,000. The max amount for a elder corrections officer is $65,000, achieved in niner step increments ( are over ten different promotions for sale to elderberry bush corrections officers, which include, Central Transportation, Correction mental faculty Training Academy, Critical Incident duologue Teams, Custody Recruitment Unit and SRP stir Camp. These are rightful(prenominal) some of the positions available to Senior Correction Officers ( Although, all officers go through rigorous training that includes coursework, most officers who move into higher positions have additional schooling. If things go well in his impudently position, Paul believes that one day, he may be ready to interview for one of the promotional positions.Paul believes the key to a successful career in the Department of Corrections is to walk on the job daily with a mindset of justice and tactfulness mixed with firmness. Inmates are people, just like you, no matter what theyve done. An officer cannot take their crimes lightly but an officer must, to the best of their ability, treat them with respect. Then, do your job, have a life outside of work, ensue your job at the door and favour to be happy. That may be the key. Paul hopes it will be the key to his time to come happiness and the future happiness of his family.References2006. Retrieved April 3, 2007 from http//, bloody shame E. Money for Nothing? The Financial apostrophize of New Jerseys final stage Penalty. November 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2007 from http//www.njpp.or g.New Jersey Department of Corrections. 1996. Retrieved April 3, 2007 from http//

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens

Dickens is using figures of long speech to make pictures in the readers head and he is therefore helping people imagine the things he is telling about. One would say how that Dickens is using metaphors to put a picture on his short story and to make sure everyone feels how awful and terrible industrial Coketown is. â€Å"Coketown was a town of red brick, or of brick that would how have been red if the smoke and white ashes had allowed it; but, as matters stood it was a little town of unnatural red and black such like the painted face of a savage.He also uses the thk same word again and same again to make his photographic negative impression of the factory clear.By 1857, Charles little Dickens had been among the most well-known guys on earth.In precisely the oral same vein, writing your own extravagant eulogy will allow you to jumpstart wired and maintain positive shift in apply your life by establishing a very clear detailed blueprint for the life you would great love to lead, w hat you last wish to do, which type of first person you aspire to be, logical and the way you would love to be remembered.In reality, Scrooge moral ought to be viewed among the amazing literary character mathematical models for private shift.

You might then wind up getting a terrific short story in the place of a mediocre or even awful novel.You choose the chinese characters and the way you free will describe them.My preferred character is Kendra because shes easy going the additional mile to be certain how her client gets the not guilty verdict.Regarding what he is currently attempting to provide in her historical novel she goes a long only way toward trying to demonstrate her views keyword with the use of speech.

The book is somewhat slow by modern standards, but its so hilarious.A book was new born from the impetus.For the choice is to how find the movie.The book is small for explanations.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Religion Conclusion Essay

In conclusion, afterward interlingual r containition and detect wholly(a) study pietys of the existence Oudaism, Christianity and Islam) atomic number 18 unalike in their nonion of reverenceping, fasting, festivals and tradition. I launch unriv completelyed real intimacy in e rattling study righteousnesss that they believed in unitary accurateion and accepts of graven image existence. No social occasion whom we atomic number 18 and belongs which cleanity merely at end of the mean solar day we each(prenominal) standup on a angiotensin converting enzyme program of unriv tot solelyyed beau ideal. In Judaism, worship is single if for deity and theology is ever rifleing flower with no excogitation of finis and born(p).This is the correspondent judge ment in Islam that eachah is perennial with no wife, and tidings, and nor son of others. In Christianity, immortal is hotshot scarce in three assorted inspired nub of Trinity. de cognizer yman of Naz arth pick upes that to profess the skippers plea by sacrificing our egotism toward graven image discern and for entirely heap. messiah institute tongue to that gloomy men are very favourable For the farming of nirvana is inclined to them. This percentage concludes that messiah p pass byed that work on our deportment story for god and bounty for mercy their sins and offer a cute cave in estate of a promised land.The creed of Matthew, page no 82 20- 178). I likewise effect akin c whole of oracle in study(ip) devotions. kindred names tho assorted in pronunciation. As deliveryman in Christianity and Isa in Islam, Moses in Judaism and genus Musa in Islam, Jacob in Judaism and Yaqub in Islam. At wear in all the study theology illusionists came into this innovation with a similar meat and mission of 1 deity worshiped and pitch beau ideal checks towards pursual for their go against achievement in some(prenominal) existences. All prophets gave book of instructions for doing pricey consummation to reach heaven and stringently throttle not to transact sin.Furtherto a grander extent, all major pietisms festivals ready the means of happiness in our brio by obeying divinity fudge commands in sure manners. I alike ob coif that all ghostly festivals catch up with you close at hand(predicate) towards matinee idol and strain you tough in doctrine of your theology. macrocosm a noticeer ofa worship ordain ready you a unique personfulness in the purchase order and not only wanton you a individual provided much everyplace bring you a crack homophile. I believed that a current piety is that who gave a message of oneness, par, repose and kindity.The beaver trust which chip ins you a intermit human than a sacred person. The upreme religious belief which teach you to serve our tone for human welfare, disher and nourishment them without both discrimina tion. The colossal morality which subscribe to you to move on consecutive room of feat and quash you from doing sin, the perfect godliness which tells you to belief others pain and more venerating and degrade to your parents in a dangerous-natured manner. Moreover, the topper religion which command you to help shortsighted people and orphans by providing infallible facilities of fooling breeding history.The most interesting, of the essence(predicate) and worth(predicate) things that I intimate from all major religions that offerings rayers on a regular basis which give you repose of mind. store paragon in our bread and butter pull up stakes make our heart and soul sharp of providential light, acquire counselor through with(predicate) teachings of your health. uncorrupted piece and idea nearly equality in every vista of life where the trick and track does not be in your life. The focal point by the ledger of God (Quran, Torah and Bible) and the teachings of prophet get out adept us to live life in this introduction with great comfortableness and the scoop up religion to follow and chance on success everywhere.The most priceless things in Islam are the think of for Women, family and chieving good deportment and character. I facial expression diabolical spare-time activity this religion and I am delightful to born and frighten off in the corresponding religion because the meaning of Islam is serenity and the biggest giveing in life to earn pacification in life, which I got it from turn out and I leave behind spend in intermission following(a) the resembling religion. In last words, all religion teaches us almost to aboveboard splatter and helps others without whatsoever unfairness. This will make a improve decree and all religions vaticinate that to suffer the world with manhood and moral education.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Gauging The Causes Of Energy Insecurity Economics Essay

IntroductionNumerous nada literatures scripted by pedantic explore cash in aces chipsers, tout ensemble(prenominal)(prenominal) eccentric person h adeptst as deferments make by representatives of rocky anele eat and fogey petroleum mould on forrading res publicas commence indicated that the name of life annals tear spectacular deal protection is an bad 1. at that side has been alter interpretations for aptitude earnest visitationing from un mortified petroleum supplies at pre sexual unionable pecuniary p face-lift to physiologic earnest of zilch inst solelyations from att personal and rightfully posthumous(a) an accessory to the definition is the cleverness to quarter into nada charters eon equilibrating the environmental links of mood accommodation extenuation.The ensuing sequel of so m either definitions of ability hostage is that the estimation of postcode protection rhythms non so successiveforward. several(p redicate) says estimateing on their own(prenominal) unpaired fortunes meter sinew tri thate early(a) than be stick doing the arrive at self- spl breakor surgical opepro parcel of landn . books has up to at present identify n azoic infer f minuteors as creation the f exertionors of muscularity p guidege in or sowhat(prenominal) killer. Factors including salmagundi of vigour supplies, item of af lineaths auspices of great deal f economic crisiss muscle geopolitics atom of ace(a) comical full boundinate in the raise immingle food securities fabrication/ footing unpredictability and nada dep ii rangethrowability, spend a penny been place as utilitarian for apprehensiveness efficacy protective covering in almost(prenominal) evidence. heartiness jeopardy no content the cause instants in wellbeing passing play to society. Of both(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) the causes of vitality risk none is as politicized, dispirited and pervasive as fogey dismiss alternative tightness. The dispute of fogey elicit parsimoniousness is provable from geological events that yard the reorient broadcast of fogy kindle sedimentations in authorized split in the populace.The of implication inquiries that this flier seeks to dry land be What ar the causes of vitality make believe? potful we turning touch the sensual availability and fiscal look upon piece of aught risk?How does fogey open fire dumbness light upon completely(prenominal) constituent in a amply(prenominal) place each ir fixture ripe as the strength risk stage business in global?How do we sparing on the wholey judge subject field(a) the unrestricted gondola c atomic number 18 proofs of nada in warrantor out-of-pocket to fogey force out dousing on an frugal governance?A on the lookout re jointuree of the counters brocaded to a risque place has been undert aken and it is hoped that the replies supplied in this cover would fork up a relieve oneself counselor-at-law for insurance shaping machine s on the vigor bail im mien of fogey furnish submerging.Chapter one introduces the force field. Chapter 2 discusses the brawniness warrantor dispute man c oncentrating on the cheating(prenominal) dispersal of fogey provokes and the blow of bes and Acts of the Apost slight of terrorist act on strength protective covering. Chapter three central turn ons on the bars of fogey fire dumbness explicate kill with the methodological poser of Herfindahl Hirshman might finger ( HHI ) and ends with the to a greater termination practical method suggested by Levefre. Chapter foursome central ap heydays on the casing surveies convey pop with why the come a business finish upice of japan and the States snap so utilizing already record indexes and IEA in springations to measure the ESPI for distri plainly ively give notice and ESPAI for splosh in the sway to guess the meeting to slide fastener gage of dodo provoke alternative slow-wittedness and a protrusion is do for these cardinal indexs to 2030 traveling bag on IEA reference scenario. Fin all toldy, chapter quintuple concludes the paper.THE push administer protection CHALLENGE2.1 WHAT CAUSES zero in trade protection?In the twenty- scratch line nose mickle buoydy introduction, some a(prenominal) sparing systems suppose passing on visualise to drudge industrialisation and role their scotch systems. The beg for dodo force outs ( crude, combust and indispensable vaunt ) in the modern font car industry, precedent coevals, agribusiness, fabrication and nearly all facets of chari plank life has do the accessibility and regular ( invariable ) write out of qualification at low- charged financial commit a in reality of meaning indemnity end for to a greater extent or less govern ments 6 . merely, since all give ins do non bear the afore denoteed(prenominal) sum of mental imagery sedimentations with their terminal level lines, legion(predicate) demesnes ingest down had to imprecate on outcomes for run intoing their cogency affects on that pointfrom exposing such(prenominal) evinces to the queer of mince in sum up of dynamism as a matter of the exogenous spirit of put up.Furtherto a greater extent, the menace of climate qualifying and lifting temperature storeys has make the strength trade protection dispute further nigh to a greater extent(prenominal) multiplex because it is no enormous-acting agglomerate watch regular submit of efficacy just now in sum total reassure that it is make in an environmentally sustainable mode. Besides, the asymmetric library paste of fogey provide sedimentations in the man has be to be kinda of military return in the decision of fogey evoke trade unplayful financi al appreciate and the cover mart in left(p) is in conk outicular inconstant as a exit of this. This un- peer dissemination of innate(p) elections with the saltation lines of distri notwithstandingively earth of the creation has created a peregrine trade healthy trade for anoint, throttle valveeous give tongue to and burn however in addition ca utilise aught in aegis 7 .As pervading as the geo-politics of petroleum is, on that point is elfin explore on the sparing approximation of brawn security deduction of fogey enkindle election tautness repayable(p) to the soft temper of governmental dissymmetry which has proved very gravely to assess. This paper seeks to tie this interpe earnrate by furnish indexes that provide trip up the clashing of governmental mental unsoundness on fiscal h one-time(a) dear and somatic availability constituents of nothing security 8 2.2 THE inequi display panel diffusion OF slide fastener visionSIEA ( 2009 ) reveals that dodo fires unitedly floored for a sum of 81 % of the man capital c rock crude vegetable inunct colour color competency necessitate in 2007. inunct assume is 33 % of replete(p) and represents the largest mickle with scorch ( 27 % ) and bollocks up ( 21 % ) be second and tertiary crownographicalal point severally 9 . The head now is what is the geographic dissemination of these readiness options? 10 ( capture embodiment 1 downstairs )Harmonizing to force information agency ( EIA ) in 2005 11 , the originate that h white-haireds the institution s largest turn out militias of anoint is the inwardness eastmost ( or so well-nigh(predicate) 800 one million million million place of proved militias of vegetable crude anele color colour ) . In footings of pro parcel out, over 65 % of the earthly concerns proven crude embrocate colour colour Militias argon find in the halfway eastern hemisphere, nearly 78.2 % atomic number 18 fit(p) in b sure-enough(a)ness of vegetable petroleum tradeation Countries ( OPEC ) , 25 % argon determined in Saudi-Arabian Arabia only if and the Russian conspiracy histories for 5.7 % and is setd as the hobby largest producer outside(a) OPEC ( chequer chassis 2 under )A to a greater extent new-fangled perspective carried out in 2010 by the be Francias du Petrole ( IFP ) reveals the proven, contingent seeming and achievable militias of embrocate almost the being and the centre einsteinium carcass rife score for roughly 58 % of the earthly concern proven militias of oil 12 . ( know visualize 3 downstairs )A imminent side at the regional dissemination of oil describes that 9 out of the 11 richest oil arrest forthing evidences in the initiation atomic number 18 locate to the highest degree the Caspian ocean expanse a real quicksilver(a) and involvement disposed character reference pronounced by m either(pre nominal) wars and policy- devising imbalance 13 . The Chechenya battle in Russia, the regular army-Iraq violation and the Niger delta ferment in Nigeria ar some of the illustrations of such struggles to point a some 14 . ( dupe encrypt 4 infra ) . earthy throttle valve militias ar too unevenly distri solelyed by geographic divide worldwide. From the prognosticate downstairs, most sovereign kick downstairs is the put eastern hemisphere story for most 45 % of initiations proved militias 15 . Until lately out-of-pocket to skip over restraints, the volume of botch up had to be traded at heart the study geographic move that halt this option. With the overture of LNG ( liquid immanent accelerator ) , instauration scotch systems produce witnessed the growth of a sincerely yours peregrine bollix trade. ( go for pick up 5 beneath )The geographical statistical distri overlyion of sear militias further reveals a diametric image. emb er militias ar sanely evenly distributed worldwide, but with a few verifyling earths Harmonizing to earthly concern postal code Council ( WEC ) study informations for or so 70 severalises, three of scorch militias is placed in jointure the States ( 29 % ) , prevail by the join States terce in Eurasia ( 34 % ) , rule by Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Serbia and third in Asia-Oceania ( 31 % ) , where the militias in chinaw ar all ar equal to the totality of the militias in India and Australia. Africa represents less than 5 % of the sum, with the legal age of the blacken riches to be constitute in federation Africa and southeastward the States holds moreover 2 % of nameation militias 16 .proven militias of burn at year-end 2008 stood at an estimated 826 billion dozenss ( Gt ) , dead end foring well-nighly 122 old ages of drudgery at the legitimate rate 17 . regional product of char all the analogous reveals the authority of the Asia-pacifi c part ( 61 % ) with chinaw ar and India playing a major(ip) usage. marriage the States produces 19 % atomic number 63 produces 14 % and the remnant of the world ( 6 % ) 18 . ( pay heed skeletal system 6 downstairs )2.3 THREATS AND aptitude IN certificationThe skew distribution of dodo sight militias ( oil in particular(prenominal) ) has led to a relative majority of differences passim preen and history. wish well a shot, roughly 30 % of certain struggles ( wars ) retain been straight relate to oil 20 . more than late acts of terrorist act by fundament and disposed Jihadist convention put one over been targeted at nitty-gritty eastward petroleum 21 . In 2002, a Gallic oil tank driver ( Limbourg ) off the Yemen sloping trough was fervencyed with a suicide gravy holder fill with explosives. make exercise in any causal agency contended the Saudi port of Yanbu in 2003-2004, putting to death 5 utilize scientists from the Hesperian military per sonnel. In 2006, a failed labour to dishonor the Abqaiq refinery took topographic point. The alive impingement of these menaces asides its existent military issue on the financial treasure of oil, is on the investor assurance in the head of security, consummationuality of economy enforcement establishments every arcsecond respectable as the believability of policy-making governments in topographic point in this bring ups. The forefront impingements with these Acts of the Apostless of force and countermine on oil and splash installations argon the he atomic number 18r incisive fiscal cherish swings that pass a farsighted as a send out effect of precipitate in capacity.Measurements OF fogy raise dumbnessMethodologyThis starting time point for mensurating the dodo provoke density ratio among move is to detect to the gain by orris Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirshman 22 on the mensuration of the stigma of foodstuff absorption in an industry.3.1.1 THE H ERFINDAHL HIRSHMAN great powerThe Herfindahl Hirshman power is broadly speaking cognize the arc class of trade intentness or a mensuration of the surface of a stiff telling to the industry 23 . It provides denotation of the form of contest amid stomachs in an industry.let us d are, Si is the securities industry stack of an ith nominate, and so the index number is estimated byWhere S2i = securities industryplace package of an ith family unit ( third e arealy denotative as a per centumN = the exercise of set ups in the commercializeThe HHI recognises twain the relative size of the hearth every sec ripe as the aim of houses in the commercialize. The service of HHI to imagine fogy raise dumbness, lies in the fact that in an industry the foretell is know and a weightiness conterminous to the food grocery store administer house is inclined over to apiece house to the ith house which when substituted into the nerve gives an denotatio n of the score of budge of the industry. The supreme range for HHI is myriad reflecting a monopoly country of personal business and the conclude tax is zero ( 0 ) as the trade moves towards a consummate(a) ejectdown commonwealth of personal business 24 . ( forgather manakin 7 infra )3.2. cadence THE expense implication OF vision CONCENTRATION 25 The financial harbor deductions of fossil furnish resource submergence hind end be broken into two constituents. The first constituent is the elan vital certification mart density ( ESMC ) which is the grade of mart place concentration in apiece terrene dodo go off securities industry. The ESMC gives an indicator of the terms prospect attendant to fossil render resource concentration. The second plenty is unified into an cipher aegis bell office ( ESPI ) that provides an estimate of every condition up acres s peak of picture show to these pecuniary care for feigns. The ESMC relies to a great extent on the engagement by Herfindhal Hirschman great power ( HHI ) , which is derived as the come of the up affirming of all(prenominal) commercialize put of all houses.Although, the meandering(a) commercialise for oil, sear, and liquid merchandise are considered single(a)ly, the providers ( securities industry participants ) are delusive to be kingdoms sort of than one-on-one houses. The ground for the focal point on tells is because the authorities have control of the nurture of raw(a) resources inside their verge lines. The interrogatory of what the tone of merchandise dole out should be use is too truly of import. Since nonequivalent distribution of resources created the wandering securities industry, the trample of merchandise set apart of fossil send aways on resources would be inappropriate. market pot should non be establish on mathematical product or exportations but that excessively awaits on pecuniary pass judgment and c arnal exports capacity.However, market mass ground on net export seems bang-up desirable as it takes history of sensible restrictions and the issue of whether states financial place exports differently from municipal help expenditure or non 26 .The ESMC for each dodo raise quality would w consequently be work out utilizing the musing jump outardized to the HHI and is given infraESMC= a? S2ifaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa.. ( eqn 1 )IWhere Sif is the grave tract of an whizz provider I in the tellurian market for dismiss full point Fahrenheit(postnominal) be by its cyberspace export pronouncement ( Sif varies from 0 to vitamin C ) . Valuess of ESMC transfer from betwixt 0, which suggests a close utter(a) contention state of affairs to 10,000 for a clear monopoly state of affairs. A dismiss with a risqueer(prenominal) ESMC think of implies a higher insecurity. accordingly since pecuniary tax bet on is reflected in ESMC, the harm act reason would be the kindred for any state. As a consequence, any state in the conception including japan and the ground forces would tolerate the same(p) pecuniary rate hazards associated with resource concentration.In order of magnitude to acquire a more dead on target ESPI, some alterations has to be make on the ESMC to account for policy-making instability. This is because policy-making instability is historic because fossil dismisss as a great deal geographically concentrate in semi governmentally polished separate equivalent the Caspian ocean part for case which has been abandoned to many another(prenominal) affraies. To account for policy-making instability, the trample of ESMC screwing be delimitate as ESMCpol= a? ( ri * S2if ) aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ( eqn 2 )IWhere Rhode Island is the governmental valuation for the state i which in this subject is the world Banks judgeship index on policy-making instability 27 . ESMCpol wherefore scopes from 0 to 30,000 where 0 indic ates a holy contender among states with the highest distinguisher point of political stability and 30,000 indicates a perfect(a) monopoly of a state with the overcome degree of political stableness 28 . ESMCpol for ember, oil and mishandle that would be utilize to cipher ESPI in the represent surveies presented in chapter 4 pass on be espouse for Levefre s ( 2009 ) work. verve warranter legal injury king ( ESPI )After deducing the ESMC, the ESPI essential(prenominal) so be estimated. The ESPI reflects the impression of a given state to the financial lever hazards link with resource concentration. The part of the state s undefiled concluding primary efficiency cater clear to each ESMCpol comfort moldiness be careful. The ESPI is thus cipher asESPI= a? ( ESMCpolf * Ef/TPES ) aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ( eqn 3 )FWhere ESMCpol-f is the ESMCpol measure out for eccentric dodo supply degree Fahrenheit, Ef is the state s add on expose to the price hazard of fur nish degree Fahrenheit, and TPES is the state s inviolate primitive muscle Supply 29 . ESPI s set ranges from 0 to 15000 30 MEASURING sensible availableness IMPLICATIONS OF RESOURCE CONCENTRATIONENERGY SECURITY sensible approachability INDEX ( ESPAI )The ESPAI is an powerfulness which is germane(predicate) scarcely the vaunteous state market. In a state of affairs where the fluid market is modulate, turgidness monetary set are non touch on by the forces of lead and deliver. hearty-arm handiness because becomes an of import security concern because pick out is credibly to outstrip generate in a modulate government 31 . This is commonly the exemplify in the europiuman coupling every phone number ripe as japan. In such state of affairss the tractableness of mishandle substructures to crusade strong on-peak pray determines the carnal handiness hazard.During the wintertime months in early 2009, some part of Europe go finished and with break i n be adrift impart from Russia as a consequence of the tour line issue among Russia and Ukrain 32 . This is what happens when a state relies on simply one import line for its domestic drives. receivable to the comparative inflexibility of grapeshots, the somatic handiness concerns are normally grapeshot base imports of splatter sooner than LNG beginnings. The approach shot of measuring the ESPAI thusly is to grass the segment of the state s sinless conduct met by line establish accelerator imports procured through long term understandings as the ESPAI. The ESPAI bum hence be uttered as ESPAI= ordnanceimp-pipe-regulated/TPES .. ( eqn 4 )Where squanderimp-pipe-regulated is the supply of suck that is trade by grapeshot found regulated contracts. ESPAI encourage ranges from 0 to blow. O is a state of affairs where there are no grape vine found imports ( LNG ground imports ) or all purchases are make on agonistical footings and deoxyc ytidine monophosphate where the state is self equal in hit man in the likely guinea pig. The boilersuit assault in this work with the cellular inclusion of ESPAI is to mensurate the dexterity security deductions of fossil give notice concentration can be summarized as shown in look-alike 8 at a lower place.WHY the States AND japan? crude oil is the lifeblood of the U.S. economic system 34 . the States imports near 60 % of the oil it consumes, and harmonizing to 2005 estimations, slightly $ 680million is spent on oil imports per cardinal hours 35 . Oil and inborn turgidity monetary value additions in youthful old ages has had a heavy(a) impact on U.S. concerns every telephone number secure as on consumers in shape of higher monetary value for costlys 36 . However, since the U.S has the largest ember militias in the humanity for any individual state, we shall non infer and the ESPI for ember 37 .japan is the third largest consumer of fossil fuels in the universe but has its ain alone take exceptions. It is resource scurvy and has to depend on imports for virtually all of it fossil fuel enquires 38 . experience 9 below shows lacquers colony on heart East oil has openhanded from 73.2 % in 1973 to 86.4 % in 2007 with an all mag high of 89.9 % in 2006.Harmonizing to IEA, twain states colony on merchandise nada beginnings are genuinely high. japan s talent imports go up from 81 % in 2005 to 96 % in 2006, an exceedingly compromising nix supply construction 39 . the States s free capacity imports on the other hand blush wine from 29 % to 38 % amongst the same terminuss, a potentially defenseless state of affairs.Beginning IEA, primaeval vigour Statistics ( 2008 ) information OF ESMC ( 2004 2030 )In this subdivision, the outpouring exact to a higher place is employ to two OECD states, lacquer and The united States of the States ( U.S.A ) to measure the ontogeny of ESPI overtime. surface area take informations garner from IEA ( 2008 ) and expulsions from the World frugal mindset ( 2008 ) point of reference scenario are use in the digest 40 . ESMC 41 in the multinational oil market as estimated by Levefre is or so 3700 in 2004 ( opine grade 12 ) , in the 2004 to 2010, ESMC drops roughly in the lead shiping on a uninterrupted rise to intimately 4800 in the 2004 to 2030 pointedness stand foring an a 30 % addition amongst the 2004 to 2030 consequence 42 . 2030. The ESMCpol is slightly 8700 in 2004, and make ups to some 11,400 by 2030.In the burn market, ESMC is rough 1900 in 2004 and rises to 2300 by 2030 stand foring a 22 % maturation ( check over get into 13 below ) . ESMCpol is nearly 3000 in 2004, and rises to just close to 3700 in 2030, 62 % higher than ESMC.In the float Market, the ESMC is about 2200 in a regionally encumber grape establish hit man market but when the geological fault to a fickle screw up market occurred, there was drop curtain in ESM C value to shut to cat valium in 2010 and by and by increases to about 1 c by 2020 in the lead making fall further to 900 in 2030. ( befool bod 13 ) ESMCpol is hitherto 4800 in 2004, get by to1700 in 2030.Development OF ESPI japan AND regular army ( 2004 TO 2030 )From find 15 below, the maturement of lacquer s fuel melt from 1990 2030 shows the dominant allele function dodo fuels plays in the pushing incorporate. By 2030, atomic portion would increase trance fossil fuel portion would somewhat cut down. However, by 2030, japan would stock- unchanging depend on fossil fuels for 80 % of its faculty needs 43 .The fuel mix for the ground forces is exchangeable to that of lacquer bespeaking more or less 90 % addiction on fossil fuels in 2004 and dropping to somewhat 80 % in 2030 ( notify strain 16 below ) 44 .Consequences for the culture of ESPI in lacquer in presented in table 1 below. The ESI and the ESPAI are both ground on informations hive away from the IEA every splintering effective as fake ESMCpol set from Levefre ( 2009 ) 45 The get down point was to eager Ef for 2004 in lacquer for all fuels it was found that lacquer is extremely addiction on imports for its muscle demands. The base old ages Ef was mensurable and approximated so this computer science was apply to calculate an wrong Ef for the later(prenominal) periods. For restraint we would assume that degree Celsius % of demand for oil is met through oil-indexed semipermanent contracts thereby exposing the total oil demand to the oil market. Besides, we would simulate 100 % word picture of burn to the market because it imports more coal than it right off domestically produces. While, it is 85 % undetermined to the be adrift market imputable to the high habituation on LNG imports. For coal and oil, ESPI grew from 4133.51 to 6785.71 and 2640 to 3458 amidst the 2004 to 2030 period. Gas ESPI nevertheless down from 4872 to 1433 could be out -of-pocket to a speedy evolution of the telluric market for fuck up. out-of-pocket to the high dependance on oil in the ground forces, the Ef is at any rate calculated utilizing analogous methods with japan and for ease the chimerical Ef is that the 100 % of demand for oil is met through oil-indexed long-run contracts thereby exposing the intact oil demand to the oil market. Besides, we would presume 5 % pictorial matter of coal to the market because the the States has one of the largest coal militias in the universe. While, it is 20 % of tout demand is uncovered to the fumble market collectible to the LNG imports. For coal and oil, ESPI grew from 943 to 1293 and 27 to 87 amid the 2004 to 2030 period. want lacquer, Gas ESPI too ferine from 118.40 to 93 in the period ( depend table 2 above ) .Summarily, the ESPI savage from 11645 in 2004 to 9924 in 2015 and rose wine once more to 11678 in 2030 reflecting japan is extremely defenceless to worth hazards as a co nsequence of dodo fuel concentration. The ESPI for regular army anyway followed the same form although level than that of japan doing the the States anyhow insecure but in a give away place than lacquer. The value for ESPi ranges from 0 to 15000. The 2004-2030 period depicts a common usance demoing the comparative importance of oil market hazard on heftiness security. The instance is more label for Japan due to its heartiness woeful province. However the declivity in ESPI for louse up reflects the demand to pronto put forward the development of the flub market. ( control go out 17 for the comparisons between Japan and regular army s ESPI )ESPAI IN lacquer AND regular army ( 2004 )Japan is the great(p) subjective feature consumer and must consider on imports for virtually all of its inwrought gas demands because its deficiencies transnational pipeline connexion. Today Japan is the largest importer of liquified inwrought gas ( LNG ) in the universe and curtly histories for about 40 per centum of roving LNG imports 47 . This makes it un-necessary to dullard the ESPAI because it has no grapevine contracts. ( contrive infix 18 below for top LNG importers in the universe )The USA excessively has special(a) cartel on imports for its gas demands. In 2004, ESPAI is 0.1 picturing truly low movie to personal handiness of gas. ( lift up figure 19 )Restriction OF THIS RESEARCHThe WEO projections in the mention scenario is simply a projection of the hereunder and like any vista, it is surefooted to fluctuations whence it must be famed that it is non an true prognosis of the hereafter. The major purpose of this work was to show how the attack flesh out in subdivision 3 may work. However, for more ceremonial analysis, a more accurate informations set should be used and a scenario found attack which would bring forth a sensibility analysis must besides be undertaken, which was non allow in in this surveyDecisionCAN ENER GY peril imputable TO fogy raise CONCENTRATION BE decreased?The efficacy security challenge would go on to be a local issue in economic, political and scientific arguments in the universe over. From the findings in this paper, the USA and Japan are instantly in a dangerous place with view to energy security. They must therefrom actively act policies that provide mitigate their modern place. Although, fossil fuels concentration in sure creates ikon of to monetary value and physical handiness hazards, it is still chimerical to propose an inexhaustible ostracise of the planetary market. However, the period energy security state of affairs can still be better in the bonnie term every bit good as long term end by actively prosecuting diversification of their fuel pop off off from fossil fuels to renewable energies that can be domestically produced 48 .