Monday, February 18, 2019
Conductivity :: essays research papers
Super conductivity is a natural phenomenon in which veritable materials such as metals, entirelyoys, and ceramics, can conduct electricity without resistance. These materials are what we send for superconductors. In a superconductor, once the flow of electrons begins, it essentially goes on forever, qualification it an important material to humans. Superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch scientist by the name of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. While researching properties of materials at absolute zero, this man effectuate out that certain materials lost its resistance to the flow of electrons. For years to come, his denudation was at the head of theoretical interest. The only problem though, was that people at that time could not even think of a way to seduce such a temperature, to allow materials to be superconductors at all times. This all changed in 1986 when Karl Muller and George Bednorz were working at the IBM Research Division in Zurich, Switzerland. They erect a material that reached superconductivity at around 35 degrees one thousand or 238 degrees Celsius. In the next year, a team of Chinese-American physicists declared that they had found a material that reached superconductivity at 92 degrees Kelvin. This was a big improvement. 92 degrees Kelvin is not a very high temperature, in fact, it is the kindred of 181 degrees Celsius. Locating superconducting material above 77 degree Kelvin is a good thing because it means that the material will be considerably produced and used. A theoretical understanding of superconductivity was advanced in 1957 by American physicists John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Schrieffer. Their Theories of Superconductivity became know as the BCS theory (which came from each mans go away name) and won them a Nobel prize in 1972. The BCS theory explained superconductivity at temperatures closedown to absolute zero. However, at higher temperatures and with different superconductor systems, the BCS theory has con sequently became meagerly to fully explain electron behavior. The Type 1 category of superconductors is fundamentally made up of pure metals that normally show conductivity at room temperature. They require really cold temperatures to slow down molecular vibrations enough to facilitate unrestrained electron flow in organisation to the BCS theory. BCS theory suggests that electrons team up in cooper pairs in enounce to help each other overcome molecular obstacles. Type 1 superconductors were discovered first and require the coldest temperatures to become superconductive. They are characterized by a very sharp transition to a superconducting state.