Friday, May 17, 2019

Acids, Bases and Salts

A chemical substance (typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid) that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves approximately metals, and turns litmus red. Ionic Dissociation Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which ionic compounds (complexes, or salts) separate or split into smaller particles, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. Strength of Acids The strength of an panellingrefers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton. at that place ar very few strong dits. A strong acid is unrivalled that completely ionizes inwater. In contrast a weak acid only partially dissociates.Examples of strong acidsarehydrochloric acid(HCl),hydroiodic acid(HI),hydrobromic acid(HBr),perchloric acid(HClO4),nitric acid(HNO3) and sulfuric acid(H2SO4). In water apiece of these essentially ionizes 100%. The stronger an acid is, the more easily it loses a proton, H+. Two key factors that collapse to the ease of deprotonation are thepolarityof the HA bond and the size of atom A, which determines the strength of the HA bond. Acid strengths are also often discussed in terms of the stability of the conjugate base. Sulfonic acids, which are organic oxyacids, are aclassof strong acids.A common example is toluenesulfonic acid(tosylic acid). Unlike sulfuric acid itself, sulfonic acids can be solids. Superacidsare acids stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. Examples of superacids arefluoroantimonic acid,magic acidandperchloric acid. Superacids can permanently protonate water to give ionic, crystallinehydroniumsalts. Basicity of an Acid Basicity of an acid refers to thenumber of replaceable total heat atomsin one tittle of the acid. 3 common types of Basicity of an acid Monobasic Definition 1 molecule assign1 H+ ionupon dissociation ExampleHCl, HNO3 Dissociation Equation HCl(aq) > H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)Dibasic Definition 1 molecule produce2 H+ion upon dissociation ExampleH2SO4 Dissociation Equation Figure it out yourself Tribasic Definition 1 molecule pr oduce3 H+ion upon dissociation ExampleH3PO4 Dissociation Equation H3PO4(aq) > 3H+(aq) + PO4 3-(aq) Alkali An alkali is a base in an aqueous solution or a chemical compound which is water alcohol-soluble and neutralizes or effervesces with acids and turns litmus blue typically, a caustic or corrosive substance of this kind such(prenominal) as lime or soda. Examples of alkalis include NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide), NH3(Ammonia) and KOH (Potassium Hydroxide).Salt Any chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with all or part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a metal or former(a) cation. Bases Abaseinchemistryis a substance that can accepthydrogen ions(protons) or more generally, donate electron pairs. A soluble base is referred to as analkaliif it contains and releases hydrated oxideions(OH? )quantitatively. TheBronsted-Lowry theorydefines bases asproton(hydrogen ion) acceptors, while the more general Lewis theory defines bases aselectron pair donors, allow ing otherLewis acidsthan protons to be included.Bases can bethoughtof as the chemical opposite ofacids. A reaction between an acid and base is calledneutralization. Bases and acids are seen as opposites because the effect of an acid is to increase thehydronium ion(H3O+)concentrationin water, whereas bases bring low this concentration. Bases and acids are typicallyfoundinaqueous solutionforms. Aqueous solutions of bases react with aqueous solutions of acids to producewaterandsalts

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