Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Police Administration Essay
The role of practice of law in the preventative of the community has farsighted been recognized. It is so of great importance that the operations behind the licit philosophy system be well understood in order to identify points that ar considered to be exemplary, as well as beas which atomic consequence 18 in lack of further evaluation and reorganization. This research paper allow discuss compasss of legal philosophy administration that be related to the recruitment and hiring process. A brief review of other related areas of jurisprudence administration will also be presented in order to picture a holistic everyplaceview of the topic.POLICE WORK AND RELATED PROBLEMSThe area of law pasture is an occupation that is strongly associated with misconduct and criminal acts. The act of performing jurisprudence relieve wizself is highly discretionary because it entails a combi terra firma of both(prenominal) standard law principles and soulal ideologies that influen ce a law officers values and morale. Police take a crap also involves coercive activity that regularly occurs in the most private situations which are often not in the presence of their immediate supervisors but in the vicinity of witnesses who, unfortunately, often distort the details of the criminal event when interviewed or asked to testify. Police work is also strongly associated with corruption through the extreme ill-treatment of police chest of drawers for the wrong benefits of other individuals (Klockars, 2000).Corruption is a form of misconduct that has long been a c at one timern of every society. Several attempts has been made to cook the application and use of corruption in police work yet there are some(prenominal) factors that decrease the likelihood of success in coercive this social problem. One of the factors that hinder the control of corruption is that police officers refuse to report activities that are deemed corrupt to their fellow officers. Also known as The formula or The Code of Silence, this secret has been with the police fight for decades.Another factor that prevents the control of corruption in police work is that police administrators are indecisive in acknowledging that corrupt events do exist in their respective police agencies. The idea that corrupt activities may benefit the police officers in terms of tautological financial income also influences police officers to continue performing or acknowledging corrupt acts. Another factor that prevents the success in controlling corrupt activities within the police force involves the scarcity of victims of these shameful acts who are willing to report the corrupt incident to federal investigators.For some time, corruption has been viewed by police administrators as a sign of the insufficiency of moral standards among police officers. To date, the officials of police administration has actively fought the problem of corruption in the police force by meticulously and guarded ly screening the new applicants for steads in the police force in order to lessen the probability that newly employ police officers will not afford to the perennial problem of corruption in their field of work. In step-up, police administrators have also aggressively followed and hunted down any members of the police force that are known to deal with corrupt activities during their limn of duty with the police force. Once these morally delinquent police officers are tracked, they are dismissed from their go unders so that any additional gaffes of corruption will surely be prevented.The removal of these corrupt police officers also assure that the negative influences of these police officers will not spread to the rest of the members of the police force. The concept of removal of a corrupt police officer from the police force is similar to the bad apple system in agriculture and this address has been strongly criticized in the past years. In order to better understand the pr oblems associated with police work, it is essential that the field of police work first be presented.THE ROLE OF A POLICE OFFICER A police officer pertains to a working employee of the police force who has been trained in special responsibilities much(prenominal) as counterterrorism and surveillance. A police officer is also equipped with the capabilities for child protection as well as protection of diplomatical individuals. Police officers are experienced in investigating crimes such as murder, burglary, rape and drug employmentking.It should be understood that the duties of a police officer embrace a wide range of functions. These officers are expected to be capable of responding to any type of situation that may occur during their time of duty. Police officers are considered as presidential term officials during investigatory events of crimes. In specific cities and communities, it is the responsibility of a police officer to maintain peace and conduct in the area, even if they are not on duty. Society perceives a police officer as a person who is answerable for instilling peace and order in his contingent area of duty. Peace and order can be attained through the enforcement of rules or prohibitions in terms of social inter sues. Police officers are also responsible in discouraging attempts to commit crimes, aside from investigating a crime that has already occurred in a particular area. In addition, police officers carry the legal role and authority to take hold any suspected individuals that may have played a role in a crime. They also have the authority to interrogate and detain the suspect, as well as report the incident and the associated suspects to the proper authorities. Police officers may also help in instilling the safety of the habitual during large gatherings. Such role may be similar to an emergency service wherein they could be called on to facilitate in public operations such as town or city programs and parades. These individuals also dole out as a source of immediate response during times of emergency and disasters because they serve as the first person at the scene of an incident.Once a police officer arrives at the particular site and makes a quick contemplate of the area, he then quickly informs the fire and emergency medical units of the city to respond to the situation. Depending on the state or country, police officers and firemen have the same line of call, wherein these two groups of government employees may respond to the scene of a disaster at the same time. Minor offenses are also reported by police officers in the form of citations which largely results in the implementation of fine. One good example of a minor offense includes the violation in the laws of driving and traffic such as illegal parking or over-speeding. Other traffic violations may include accosting a driver who has consumed more than the allowable amounts of alcohol drinks. The time lag of drivers that manipulate a vehicle un der the influence of alcohol prevents car accidents as well as deaths. Police officers are also trained in assisting individuals that are caught in the middle of an accident or even a simple car breakdown. It is interesting to know that police officers are trained in techniques in first aid as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Park rangers are also considered as police officers who man the home(a) lay and other open recreational locations. These individuals also enforce specific laws in order to instill peace and order in these specific areas. Police officers are also visible in areas where rallies and political activities are frequently held. These law enforcers are responsible in suppress overly active protests that hinders the rest of the public from performing their daily functions such as going to work.Police officers make sure that rallies and other kinds of protests are held within the allowable parts of the public area such as sidewalks and the rest of the peopl e and vehicles are not hindered from moving through their usual activities. at that place are some cases wherein protesters may be extremely upset regarding a particular political or ethical issue and these individual may start screaming and acting in more fierce behavior. Should this be the case, the police officers are authorized to control such actions to an acceptable level of protest.QUALIFICATION OF A POLICE OFFICER The credentials of a police officer often vary in each country, mainly depending on the expectations and roles of the police officer in that part of the world. However, it is a general requirement that a candidate for a position of police officer must show proof that he has completed some kind of formal education. Several decades earlier, police officers were not required to finish a college degree yet currently this has changed.Mostly due also to the changing times and the evolution of the society in terms of values and morals, candidates for positions of police officers are now required to carry a tertiary degree. In addition, the candidate for police officer is required to tolerate two to three years of training as a police constable prior to promotion to a position of high rank such as inspector or sergeant. It is a common path that a police officer originates from a military or security position. In addition to carrying a college degree, a candidate for police officer is also required to undergo a physical fitness examination. In the bump together States, there are currently laws that vary by state that describe the requirements for candidates for the position of police officer. The requirements include specific tuition regarding the applicants age and educational level, as well as the criminal records and training. A police agency is generally similar to that of a semi-military organization that requires particular training and experience before applicants are admitted to the police force. There are also specific qualifications b efore a particular police officer can be promoted to a higher position in the police force. It should be noted that promotion to a higher rank in the police force is not an automatic operation that occurs once a police officer has served for three years.Promotion to a higher rank entails taking additional examinations that serve as tools that will help appreciate the police officer if he is ready and competent enough to hold a higher ranking position. An interview is also conducted by the review table that serves as a personal questioning session for the candidate police officer for promotion. The stringent requirements for promotion of a police officer to a higher rank are commensurate to the responsibilities that this police officer will hold once he is awarded the higher police rank.It is actually normal for a police officer to remain in the same position ranking for some time and it is usually the highly competent officers that are often deserve a higher rank in the police forc e. There are some instances when a specific police officer stays at the same position rank for a decade or more because it has been observe through their performance that the particular police officer is not competent to serve from a higher position. Police officers who have served in the police force for a particular duration may also apply for the position of police medical specialist. The specialist positions include the detective, firearms officer or motorcycle officer.TRAINING AT THE POLICE ACADEMY A police academy is a training facility that is generally managed by the police department in order to serve as a venue for the education and development of the new recruits. These individual recruits were previously hired by the police department yet they are first required to undergo training at the police academy before they are allowed to work with the police force. The trainees at the police academy are taught essential skills that are expected of a police officer. The traini ng involves both classroom and actual action training that runs for some(prenominal) months.Full-time training requires that the candidates are present for the entire day at the police academy, with provisions for letting them stay in for several months. In private police academies, training is conducted during the evenings so that the trainees are able to work during the day time to earn their wages to support themselves. In police academies that are run by the police department, stipends are given to the trainees because they are already considered as employees of the police force. Training at the police academy includes the principles of arrest and booking of individuals. The use of firearms is also taught at the academy.Special driving skills are also taught at the police academy because this is essential is chasing suspects and criminals. The trainees are also educate in terms of CPR and first aid skills because these capabilities are expected of a competent police officer. T rainees are also taught skills in writing police reports as well as ethical measures in interacting with individuals that they would likely deal with on a daily basis as a police officer. Theories of probe and criminality will also be undertaken during the training of police officers. Methods in interacting with the community will also be taught at the police academy. After several months of training at the police academy, the trainees are required to take indite and practical examination to gauge the comprehension of the lessons that have been given to them. Upon passing the requirements of the written and practical examinations, the trainee is awarded a certification of police academy training and will then be assigned as a member of the police department. It has been observed that there has been an increase in recruitment of police officers in the past decade and it has been predicted that the number of newly recruited police officers will increase in the coming years. This is mostly due to the change in the society and politics of the country, as well as the increase in urbanization of cities.THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 AND equivalence AMONG MEN The hiring and recruitment of police officers has been influenced by the obliging Rights Act of 1964. Years ago, Martin Luther King had a dream that all men and women would be equal. The laws and progression of cultivated rights and immigration has changed the United States. Racial inequality and color prejudice has damaged the United States affecting the government system through legislation. The differences in culture primer and heritage are being traversed. Borders are supposedly being crossed.Educational theories and classroom practices are taking up new forms in order to conform and meet the educational needs of the global societies. Educators and teachers are being expected to share views and recognize values from different cultures, races, societies and ethnic groups. They are expected to come upon outside the system and custom of the dominant society and incorporate beliefs other than those they are accustomed with. Our laws and progression of Civil Rights and immigration has changed the United States (AARP, 2004). The challenges that face our nations children relates to the cultured right movements and immigration laws.The 1800s industrialization expansion and slave trade increased immigration to the United States, bringing around 25 million people between 1866 and 1915. In 1917, the United States began placing and enforcing restrictions on immigration. The government did have provisions before, however most statutes were requirements for naturalization, government powers, reporting of aliens or items allowed to import. Amid 1875 to 1888, the government wanted to exclude people from coming into the United States that were criminals (whether convicted of crime or misdemeanor), prostitutes, paid or slave laborers, people with contagious diseases, polygamist, anarchist, or a ny person who wanted or thought it was okay to overthrow a government through forceful violence or assassination of public officials.On February 5, 1917, a commission set forth by the President Woodrow Wilson, proposed and passed a law that enacted previous exclusions and added to exclude illiterate aliens. The excludable people were imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, persons with physical or mental defects which may affect their ability to earn a living, persons afflicted with tuberculosis, children unaccompanied by their parents, persons who admitted the commission of a crime involving moral turpitude, and women coming to the United States for immoral purposes. The 1920 U.S. count showed that the heaviest immigration prior to that time were from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and other countries in northern Europe.In the course of the ending of World War II in 1945, the number of aliens both legal and illegal increased dramatically. Immigrants were trying to escape poverty and o ppression from all over the world. Citizens of the United States began feeling the pressure of immigrants taking their jobs and exploitation expensive social services provided by the U.S. government with American tax dollars. The media began to portray evidence of racial inequality and color prejudice, damaging the image of the United States. Therefore, immigration and racial equality became debated hot topics.In 1857, the National Education Association (NEA) was formed to benefit teachers and students, and work to bring attention to educational issues, such as low teachers salaries, teacher retirement benefits, student testing and other bureaucratic demands. The NEA became an advocate for students and teachers through curriculum enhancements to both side manner of speaking arts and history to benefit Immigrants, African Americans, and Indians (Holcomb 2006). The NEA lobbied to encourage laws like The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and The Immigration Nationality Act of 1964, which stil l affects our laws today, encouraging the idea of multiculturalism, thus expanding subjects such as history and language arts to include viewpoints of historically powerless and oppressed groups.During the complaisant rights movement, there were two Americas, a minatoryen America and a uninfected America. The school, bathrooms, water fountains, restaurants, bus seats, libraries, movie theaters, hospital floors, and even the line to see Santa Clause were all segregated based on the color of skin. African Americans went to school four months out of the year because they needed to help earn incomes the rest of the months. Their schools had no cafeteria, most with outside bathrooms and their books were passed down from the white schools so they were all out of date. The school building that contained African American students were falling apart. The classes were overcrowded with too many students, and not enough room for all the needed classes and materials. For the most part, thes e students had teachers that were substitutes who didnt know what they were doing. The teachers that were in these schools had fixed values for these students and did not provide curriculum that was interesting or pertained to the students who were learning.The assumption of teachers was that these African American students did not deserve a great deal in life and that a little, even a very little, (a very little) for a Negro child is a great deal more than he or she has earned. Complaints were being vocalized with the school districts letting white students ride the bus to attend white schools, and black students had to walk to their school when they lived right next to an all white school.In 1951, the Supreme royal court finally had to face and rule on the subject of civil rights. A group called the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), created in 1909 to work towards eliminating segregation and contrariety, came together in a court case embrown ve rsus Board of Education. African Americans had started filing suits against the educational systems as early as 1845, but the Supreme Court combined five cases to hear in 1951. The issues brought before the court was because of school conditions, segregation, deficient curriculum, pupil to teacher ratio, teacher training, extracurricular activity programs offered, transportation deficiencies, and of course teacher salaries.The discriminatory environment derived from civil rights and immigration issues unlocked, and then caused the world to see that human tendencies are to prejudge, discriminate against, and stereotype people based on their ethnic, religious, physical, or cultural characteristics.In 1954, chocolate-brown versus Board of Education of Topeka, also called Brown I ruled by Chief Justice Warren, acknowledged learning to be the most significant tax of state and local government and repudiated the separate but equal doctrine, deciding that racially segregated schools were intactly unequal (Brown Foundation, 1996). The decision had great impact and historic to the civil rights movement. The Supreme Court ruled that school had no place for separate but equal status.A year later the Supreme Court decision in Brown II defined how and when school desegregation would be achieved because there was no standard or deadline set in Brown I. The legal precedence of this time caused far reaching social and ideological implications that brought some changes in the 1960s and beyond. On the other run, the legal wrangling did not make immigration and civil right issues disappear because of the ambiguity of the legal decisions. The 1960s brought about race riots all over the U.S., deaths because of race, and more laws that declared discrimination illegal.On January 20, 1964, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into the Presidency, after the sudden death of President John F. Kennedy. As America mourned the death of JFK, President Lyndon B. Johnson placed his hand on the Holy Bible that was being held by his wife and took the oath of office. On that particular day, Lyndon B. Johnson launched his new program called the Great Society. The agenda was intended to allege a better quality of life for all Americans. Reporters knew the Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson as a legislative miracle. In fact, Dick West of the Dallas Morning cuttings denotative that Mr. Truman could not get started on a civil rights bill because a rebellious congress passed an immigration law over a veto.Jack Kennedy took one whirl at federal aid to education, and then backed off. Then he tried to get Congress to set up a part of Housing and Urban Development with Cabinet Status and was turned down in the House 264 to 150. On the other hand, West writes that President Johnson was able to get these laws passed exactly the way he wanted them, thus being named The Congressional Magician. President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on July 2, 1964, during a lu ncheon ceremonial late President Abraham Lincoln in the East room of the White House. The bill was about discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The President sat at a small table in the center with racks holding 72 pens, which was an insufficient amount.He actually used over 100 pens to sign this triumphant bill into law. Robert F. Kennedy sat in the front row, Martin Luther King sat in the second row, and other senators and cabinet members attended. President Johnsons speech was swift but had great emphasis as he called on all Americans to close the springs of racial poison and eliminate the last vestiges of dark in our beloved America.The President spoke of the challenge that Lincoln bestowed upon America asking for preservation of the union, enlargement of liberties for America and for being true to the Declaration of independency which gives liberty to all. The speech was a direct challenge for all Americans to ensure that all people including B lack Americans will be a part of a complete and equal society.Immigrants thus have an equal opportunity to apply as police officers. However, it has been observed that most immigrants do not perform well in the written examination for police officers because the links between illiteracy and illegal immigration is astounding. Hispanic immigrants come to the United States without having the prefatory literacy skills needed (Garraty and Carnes, 2001). Teachers in Texas are finding that their classes are mostly English language learners. Bilingual assistants are there to translate to students and teacher regarding teaching information and notes they are also there to translate during parent teacher conferences.Each state requires that each police officer candidate establish a language proficiency assessment to show that he passed the proficiency and achievement-level this is required for those individuals whose primary language is not English. The examining committee classifies the app licant and recommends placement and help to benefit the applicant. There are now reports that the translator and the English Language Learning programs are now improving. Most immigrants are visual learners hence English or Spanish languages are no barriers to learning. The problem is when the Hispanic people take the summers off to return to Mexico.Jackie stated that it seems like they lose the English proficiency learned previously. temporary hookup some teachers see the problem improving there are immigrants who have voiced their concern. There are certain citizens who are concerned that teachers are expenditure more time because of English Language Learners and have even dealt with hearing the American-born individuals in a special class because of observation as a wearisome reader. Upon further investigation, it was realized the teacher was teaching and reading to the children in Spanish, which English-speaking students did not understand.Because education focus has become mu lti-cultural teachers use literature to teach about other cultures. Multi-cultural literature develops values and self-concept for students. On the other hand, some say American-born students reading and writing scores are declining and achievement gaps are closing. Some opine that many linguists and educators focus on the multicultural aspect, degrading the English Language. As of 1992, many states require teachers to have a certification to teach English as a Second Language, also called ESL in order to assist immigrants who are in training.Teachers must have the appropriate academic background is ESL theory and methodology. time there are some educators who back bilingual education, which is where students learn basic skills in their own language while they are learning to speak English. English-speaking students will have a chance to learn Spanish. However, we are facing political efforts to make English the United States official language. Senator Pete Domenci of New Mexico e xpressed that the inherent shallowness behind English Only would deny the United States the opportunity to meet is full market potential.Therefore, he introduced an approach called English Plus. English-plus, adopted in New Mexicos constitution requiring those public school teachers must be trained in both English and Spanish so that Spanish-speaking students will be taught English properly. On the other hand, many believe there is no need to make English the official language of the United States because it limits us from having a worldview. The English Language is the most multi-cultural language and it celebrates diversity because of the multi-cultural influences from the French, Germans, and Africans, which continually make it powerful and diverse.There is an increase in the need for police officers to establish peace and order in the country. At the same time, the country is experiencing a rapid immigration increase of Hispanics and African American students. The put forward o f the current level and police administration in terms of the hiring and recruitment process is an interesting area to cover.The costs of raising education potential for both African Americans and Latino students in order to provide equal opportunity for hiring immigrants would be high, yet there would be benefits by savings in public peace and order expenditures and increased tax revenues based on higher incomes. Holding onto our legacy of the past, we are now teaching with a cultural approach attempt to raise the academic and professional achievement of all trainees and students through culturally relevant lessons.ReferenceAARP, LCCR, & Library of Congress (2004). Save Our History Voices of Civil Rights. The History Channel The Hearst Corporation.Brown Foundation (1996). Brown VS Board of Education About the Case. Retrieved March 9, 2006 from http//brownvboard.org/summary/.Garraty, J.A. & Carnes, M.C. (2001). A Short History of the American Nation. (P. 450). New York LongmanKlocka rs CB (2000) The measurement of police integrity. U.S. Department of Justice Research Briefs. May 2000.